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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

Improving Information Extraction by Acquiring External Evidence with Reinforcement Learning

Sep 27, 2016
Karthik Narasimhan, Adam Yala, Regina Barzilay

Most successful information extraction systems operate with access to a large collection of documents. In this work, we explore the task of acquiring and incorporating external evidence to improve extraction accuracy in domains where the amount of training data is scarce. This process entails issuing search queries, extraction from new sources and reconciliation of extracted values, which are repeated until sufficient evidence is collected. We approach the problem using a reinforcement learning framework where our model learns to select optimal actions based on contextual information. We employ a deep Q-network, trained to optimize a reward function that reflects extraction accuracy while penalizing extra effort. Our experiments on two databases -- of shooting incidents, and food adulteration cases -- demonstrate that our system significantly outperforms traditional extractors and a competitive meta-classifier baseline.

* Appearing in EMNLP 2016 (12 pages incl. supplementary material) 
  

Discourse in Multimedia: A Case Study in Information Extraction

Nov 13, 2018
Mrinmaya Sachan, Kumar Avinava Dubey, Eduard H. Hovy, Tom M. Mitchell, Dan Roth, Eric P. Xing

To ensure readability, text is often written and presented with due formatting. These text formatting devices help the writer to effectively convey the narrative. At the same time, these help the readers pick up the structure of the discourse and comprehend the conveyed information. There have been a number of linguistic theories on discourse structure of text. However, these theories only consider unformatted text. Multimedia text contains rich formatting features which can be leveraged for various NLP tasks. In this paper, we study some of these discourse features in multimedia text and what communicative function they fulfil in the context. We examine how these multimedia discourse features can be used to improve an information extraction system. We show that the discourse and text layout features provide information that is complementary to lexical semantic information commonly used for information extraction. As a case study, we use these features to harvest structured subject knowledge of geometry from textbooks. We show that the harvested structured knowledge can be used to improve an existing solver for geometry problems, making it more accurate as well as more explainable.

  

Jointly Multiple Events Extraction via Attention-based Graph Information Aggregation

Oct 23, 2018
Xiao Liu, Zhunchen Luo, Heyan Huang

Event extraction is of practical utility in natural language processing. In the real world, it is a common phenomenon that multiple events existing in the same sentence, where extracting them are more difficult than extracting a single event. Previous works on modeling the associations between events by sequential modeling methods suffer a lot from the low efficiency in capturing very long-range dependencies. In this paper, we propose a novel Jointly Multiple Events Extraction (JMEE) framework to jointly extract multiple event triggers and arguments by introducing syntactic shortcut arcs to enhance information flow and attention-based graph convolution networks to model graph information. The experiment results demonstrate that our proposed framework achieves competitive results compared with state-of-the-art methods.

* EMNLP. 1 (2018) 1247-1256 
* accepted by EMNLP 2018 
  

DeepSteal: Advanced Model Extractions Leveraging Efficient Weight Stealing in Memories

Nov 08, 2021
Adnan Siraj Rakin, Md Hafizul Islam Chowdhuryy, Fan Yao, Deliang Fan

Recent advancements of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have seen widespread deployment in multiple security-sensitive domains. The need of resource-intensive training and use of valuable domain-specific training data have made these models a top intellectual property (IP) for model owners. One of the major threats to the DNN privacy is model extraction attacks where adversaries attempt to steal sensitive information in DNN models. Recent studies show hardware-based side channel attacks can reveal internal knowledge about DNN models (e.g., model architectures) However, to date, existing attacks cannot extract detailed model parameters (e.g., weights/biases). In this work, for the first time, we propose an advanced model extraction attack framework DeepSteal that effectively steals DNN weights with the aid of memory side-channel attack. Our proposed DeepSteal comprises two key stages. Firstly, we develop a new weight bit information extraction method, called HammerLeak, through adopting the rowhammer based hardware fault technique as the information leakage vector. HammerLeak leverages several novel system-level techniques tailed for DNN applications to enable fast and efficient weight stealing. Secondly, we propose a novel substitute model training algorithm with Mean Clustering weight penalty, which leverages the partial leaked bit information effectively and generates a substitute prototype of the target victim model. We evaluate this substitute model extraction method on three popular image datasets (e.g., CIFAR-10/100/GTSRB) and four DNN architectures (e.g., ResNet-18/34/Wide-ResNet/VGG-11). The extracted substitute model has successfully achieved more than 90 % test accuracy on deep residual networks for the CIFAR-10 dataset. Moreover, our extracted substitute model could also generate effective adversarial input samples to fool the victim model.

  

Unsupervised Keyword Extraction for Full-sentence VQA

Nov 23, 2019
Kohei Uehara, Tatsuya Harada

In existing studies on Visual Question Answering (VQA), which aims to train an intelligent system to be able to answer questions about images, the answers corresponding to the questions consists of short, almost single words. However, considering the natural conversation with humans, the answers would more likely to be sentences, rather than single words. In such a situation, the system needs to focus on a keyword, i.e., the most important word in the sentence, to answer the question. Therefore, we have proposed a novel keyword extraction method for VQA. Because collecting keywords and full-sentence annotations for VQA can be highly costly, we perform the keyword extraction in an unsupervised manner. Our key insight is that the full-sentence answer can be decomposed into two parts: the part contains new information for the question and the part only contains information already included in the question. Since the keyword is considered as the part which contains new information as the answer, we need to identify which words in the full-sentence answer are the part of new information and which words are not. To ensure such decomposition, we extracted two features from the full-sentence answers, and designed discriminative decoders to make each feature to include the information of the question and answers respectively. We conducted experiments on existing VQA datasets, which contains full-sentence annotations, and show that our proposed model can correctly extract the keyword without any keyword annotations.

  

Do Syntax Trees Help Pre-trained Transformers Extract Information?

Aug 20, 2020
Devendra Singh Sachan, Yuhao Zhang, Peng Qi, William Hamilton

Much recent work suggests that incorporating syntax information from dependency trees can improve task-specific transformer models. However, the effect of incorporating dependency tree information into pre-trained transformer models (e.g., BERT) remains unclear, especially given recent studies highlighting how these models implicitly encode syntax. In this work, we systematically study the utility of incorporating dependency trees into pre-trained transformers on three representative information extraction tasks: semantic role labeling (SRL), named entity recognition, and relation extraction. We propose and investigate two distinct strategies for incorporating dependency structure: a late fusion approach, which applies a graph neural network on the output of a transformer, and a joint fusion approach, which infuses syntax structure into the transformer attention layers. These strategies are representative of prior work, but we introduce essential design decisions that are necessary for strong performance. Our empirical analysis demonstrates that these syntax-infused transformers obtain state-of-the-art results on SRL and relation extraction tasks. However, our analysis also reveals a critical shortcoming of these models: we find that their performance gains are highly contingent on the availability of human-annotated dependency parses, which raises important questions regarding the viability of syntax-augmented transformers in real-world applications.

* Code will be made available 
  

Leveraging Spatial Information in Radiology Reports for Ischemic Stroke Phenotyping

Oct 10, 2020
Surabhi Datta, Shekhar Khanpara, Roy F. Riascos, Kirk Roberts

Classifying fine-grained ischemic stroke phenotypes relies on identifying important clinical information. Radiology reports provide relevant information with context to determine such phenotype information. We focus on stroke phenotypes with location-specific information: brain region affected, laterality, stroke stage, and lacunarity. We use an existing fine-grained spatial information extraction system--Rad-SpatialNet--to identify clinically important information and apply simple domain rules on the extracted information to classify phenotypes. The performance of our proposed approach is promising (recall of 89.62% for classifying brain region and 74.11% for classifying brain region, side, and stroke stage together). Our work demonstrates that an information extraction system based on a fine-grained schema can be utilized to determine complex phenotypes with the inclusion of simple domain rules. These phenotypes have the potential to facilitate stroke research focusing on post-stroke outcome and treatment planning based on the stroke location.

  

Improving Target Sound Extraction with Timestamp Information

Apr 02, 2022
Helin Wang, Dongchao Yang, Chao Weng, Jianwei Yu, Yuexian Zou

Target sound extraction (TSE) aims to extract the sound part of a target sound event class from a mixture audio with multiple sound events. The previous works mainly focus on the problems of weakly-labelled data, jointly learning and new classes, however, no one cares about the onset and offset times of the target sound event, which has been emphasized in the auditory scene analysis. In this paper, we study to utilize such timestamp information to help extract the target sound via a target sound detection network and a target-weighted time-frequency loss function. More specifically, we use the detection result of a target sound detection (TSD) network as the additional information to guide the learning of target sound extraction network. We also find that the result of TSE can further improve the performance of the TSD network, so that a mutual learning framework of the target sound detection and extraction is proposed. In addition, a target-weighted time-frequency loss function is designed to pay more attention to the temporal regions of the target sound during training. Experimental results on the synthesized data generated from the Freesound Datasets show that our proposed method can significantly improve the performance of TSE.

* submitted to interspeech2022 
  

InSRL: A Multi-view Learning Framework Fusing Multiple Information Sources for Distantly-supervised Relation Extraction

Dec 17, 2020
Zhendong Chu, Haiyun Jiang, Yanghua Xiao, Wei Wang

Distant supervision makes it possible to automatically label bags of sentences for relation extraction by leveraging knowledge bases, but suffers from the sparse and noisy bag issues. Additional information sources are urgently needed to supplement the training data and overcome these issues. In this paper, we introduce two widely-existing sources in knowledge bases, namely entity descriptions, and multi-grained entity types to enrich the distantly supervised data. We see information sources as multiple views and fusing them to construct an intact space with sufficient information. An end-to-end multi-view learning framework is proposed for relation extraction via Intact Space Representation Learning (InSRL), and the representations of single views are jointly learned simultaneously. Moreover, inner-view and cross-view attention mechanisms are used to highlight important information on different levels on an entity-pair basis. The experimental results on a popular benchmark dataset demonstrate the necessity of additional information sources and the effectiveness of our framework. We will release the implementation of our model and dataset with multiple information sources after the anonymized review phase.

* 7 pages, 5 figures 
  

Integrating Local Context and Global Cohesiveness for Open Information Extraction

Nov 04, 2018
Qi Zhu, Xiang Ren, Jingbo Shang, Yu Zhang, Ahmed El-Kishky, Jiawei Han

Extracting entities and their relations from text is an important task for understanding massive text corpora. Open information extraction (IE) systems mine relation tuples (i.e., entity arguments and a predicate string to describe their relation) from sentences. These relation tuples are not confined to a predefined schema for the relations of interests. However, current Open IE systems focus on modeling local context information in a sentence to extract relation tuples, while ignoring the fact that global statistics in a large corpus can be collectively leveraged to identify high-quality sentence-level extractions. In this paper, we propose a novel Open IE system, called ReMine, which integrates local context signals and global structural signals in a unified, distant-supervision framework. Leveraging facts from external knowledge bases as supervision, the new system can be applied to many different domains to facilitate sentence-level tuple extractions using corpus-level statistics. Our system operates by solving a joint optimization problem to unify (1) segmenting entity/relation phrases in individual sentences based on local context; and (2) measuring the quality of tuples extracted from individual sentences with a translating-based objective. Learning the two subtasks jointly helps correct errors produced in each subtask so that they can mutually enhance each other. Experiments on two real-world corpora from different domains demonstrate the effectiveness, generality, and robustness of ReMine when compared to state-of-the-art open IE systems.

* 8 pages + 1 page reference. Accepted to WSDM 2019 
  
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