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"Image To Image Translation": models, code, and papers

TransferI2I: Transfer Learning for Image-to-Image Translation from Small Datasets

May 13, 2021
Yaxing Wang, Hector Laria Mantecon, Joost van de WeijerLaura Lopez-Fuentes, Bogdan Raducanu

Image-to-image (I2I) translation has matured in recent years and is able to generate high-quality realistic images. However, despite current success, it still faces important challenges when applied to small domains. Existing methods use transfer learning for I2I translation, but they still require the learning of millions of parameters from scratch. This drawback severely limits its application on small domains. In this paper, we propose a new transfer learning for I2I translation (TransferI2I). We decouple our learning process into the image generation step and the I2I translation step. In the first step we propose two novel techniques: source-target initialization and self-initialization of the adaptor layer. The former finetunes the pretrained generative model (e.g., StyleGAN) on source and target data. The latter allows to initialize all non-pretrained network parameters without the need of any data. These techniques provide a better initialization for the I2I translation step. In addition, we introduce an auxiliary GAN that further facilitates the training of deep I2I systems even from small datasets. In extensive experiments on three datasets, (Animal faces, Birds, and Foods), we show that we outperform existing methods and that mFID improves on several datasets with over 25 points.

* Technical report 
  

Segmentation Guided Image-to-Image Translation with Adversarial Networks

Jan 06, 2019
Songyao Jiang, Zhiqiang Tao, Yun Fu

Recently image-to-image translation has received increasing attention, which aims to map images in one domain to another specific one. Existing methods mainly solve this task via a deep generative model, and focus on exploring the relationship between different domains. However, these methods neglect to utilize higher-level and instance-specific information to guide the training process, leading to a great deal of unrealistic generated images of low quality. Existing methods also lack of spatial controllability during translation. To address these challenge, we propose a novel Segmentation Guided Generative Adversarial Networks (SGGAN), which leverages semantic segmentation to further boost the generation performance and provide spatial mapping. In particular, a segmentor network is designed to impose semantic information on the generated images. Experimental results on multi-domain face image translation task empirically demonstrate our ability of the spatial modification and our superiority in image quality over several state-of-the-art methods.

* Submitted to an IEEE conference 
  

GAIT: Gradient Adjusted Unsupervised Image-to-Image Translation

Sep 02, 2020
Ibrahim Batuhan Akkaya, Ugur Halici

Image-to-image translation (IIT) has made much progress recently with the development of adversarial learning. In most of the recent work, an adversarial loss is utilized to match the distributions of the translated and target image sets. However, this may create artifacts if two domains have different marginal distributions, for example, in uniform areas. In this work, we propose an unsupervised IIT method that preserves the uniform regions after the translation. The gradient adjustment loss, which is the L2 norm between the Sobel response of the target image and the adjusted Sobel response of the source images, is utilized. The proposed method is validated on the jellyfish-to-Haeckel dataset, which is prepared to demonstrate the mentioned problem, which contains images with different background distributions. We demonstrate that our method obtained a performance gain compared to the baseline method qualitatively and quantitatively, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

* Accepted by ICIP2020 
  

SPA-GAN: Spatial Attention GAN for Image-to-Image Translation

Aug 19, 2019
Hajar Emami, Majid Moradi Aliabadi, Ming Dong, Ratna Babu Chinnam

Image-to-image translation is to learn a mapping between images from a source domain and images from a target domain. In this paper, we introduce the attention mechanism directly to the generative adversarial network (GAN) architecture and propose a novel spatial attention GAN model (SPA-GAN) for image-to-image translation tasks. SPA-GAN computes the attention in its discriminator and use it to help the generator focus more on the most discriminative regions between the source and target domains, leading to more realistic output images. We also find it helpful to introduce an additional feature map loss in SPA-GAN training to preserve domain specific features during translation. Compared with existing attention-guided GAN models, SPA-GAN is a lightweight model that does not need additional attention networks or supervision. Qualitative and quantitative comparison against state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets demonstrates the superior performance of SPA-GAN.

  

One-to-one Mapping for Unpaired Image-to-image Translation

Oct 12, 2019
Zengming Shen, S. Kevin Zhou, Yifan Chen, Bogdan Georgescu, Xuqi Liu, Thomas S. Huang

Recently image-to-image translation has attracted significant interests in the literature, starting from the successful use of the generative adversarial network (GAN), to the introduction of cyclic constraint, to extensions to multiple domains. However, in existing approaches, there is no guarantee that the mapping between two image domains is unique or one-to-one. Here we propose a self-inverse network learning approach for unpaired image-to-image translation. Building on top of CycleGAN, we learn a self-inverse function by simply augmenting the training samples by swapping inputs and outputs during training and with separated cycle consistency loss for each mapping direction. The outcome of such learning is a proven one-to-one mapping function. Our extensive experiments on a variety of datasets, including cross-modal medical image synthesis, object transfiguration, and semantic labeling, consistently demonstrate clear improvement over the CycleGAN method both qualitatively and quantitatively. Especially our proposed method reaches the state-of-the-art result on the cityscapes benchmark dataset for the label to photo unpaired directional image translation.

* 10 pages, 7 figures 
  

Generative Adversarial Network with Multi-Branch Discriminator for Cross-Species Image-to-Image Translation

Jan 24, 2019
Ziqiang Zheng, Zhibin Yu, Haiyong Zheng, Yang Wu, Bing Zheng, Ping Lin

Current approaches have made great progress on image-to-image translation tasks benefiting from the success of image synthesis methods especially generative adversarial networks (GANs). However, existing methods are limited to handling translation tasks between two species while keeping the content matching on the semantic level. A more challenging task would be the translation among more than two species. To explore this new area, we propose a simple yet effective structure of a multi-branch discriminator for enhancing an arbitrary generative adversarial architecture (GAN), named GAN-MBD. It takes advantage of the boosting strategy to break a common discriminator into several smaller ones with fewer parameters, which can enhance the generation and synthesis abilities of GANs efficiently and effectively. Comprehensive experiments show that the proposed multi-branch discriminator can dramatically improve the performance of popular GANs on cross-species image-to-image translation tasks while reducing the number of parameters for computation. The code and some datasets are attached as supplementary materials for reference.

* 10 pages, 16 figures 
  

LSC-GAN: Latent Style Code Modeling for Continuous Image-to-image Translation

Oct 11, 2021
Qiusheng Huang, Xueqi Hu, Li Sun, Qingli Li

Image-to-image (I2I) translation is usually carried out among discrete domains. However, image domains, often corresponding to a physical value, are usually continuous. In other words, images gradually change with the value, and there exists no obvious gap between different domains. This paper intends to build the model for I2I translation among continuous varying domains. We first divide the whole domain coverage into discrete intervals, and explicitly model the latent style code for the center of each interval. To deal with continuous translation, we design the editing modules, changing the latent style code along two directions. These editing modules help to constrain the codes for domain centers during training, so that the model can better understand the relation among them. To have diverse results, the latent style code is further diversified with either the random noise or features from the reference image, giving the individual style code to the decoder for label-based or reference-based synthesis. Extensive experiments on age and viewing angle translation show that the proposed method can achieve high-quality results, and it is also flexible for users.

  

COCO-FUNIT: Few-Shot Unsupervised Image Translation with a Content Conditioned Style Encoder

Jul 15, 2020
Kuniaki Saito, Kate Saenko, Ming-Yu Liu

Unsupervised image-to-image translation intends to learn a mapping of an image in a given domain to an analogous image in a different domain, without explicit supervision of the mapping. Few-shot unsupervised image-to-image translation further attempts to generalize the model to an unseen domain by leveraging example images of the unseen domain provided at inference time. While remarkably successful, existing few-shot image-to-image translation models find it difficult to preserve the structure of the input image while emulating the appearance of the unseen domain, which we refer to as the \textit{content loss} problem. This is particularly severe when the poses of the objects in the input and example images are very different. To address the issue, we propose a new few-shot image translation model, \cocofunit, which computes the style embedding of the example images conditioned on the input image and a new module called the constant style bias. Through extensive experimental validations with comparison to the state-of-the-art, our model shows effectiveness in addressing the content loss problem. Code and pretrained models are available at https://nvlabs.github.io/COCO-FUNIT/ .

* The paper will be presented at the EUROPEAN Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV) 2020 
  

MedGAN: Medical Image Translation using GANs

Jun 17, 2018
Karim Armanious, Chenming Yang, Marc Fischer, Thomas Küstner, Konstantin Nikolaou, Sergios Gatidis, Bin Yang

Image-to-image translation is considered a next frontier in the field of medical image analysis, with numerous potential applications. However, recent advances in this field offer individualized solutions by utilizing specialized architectures which are task specific or by suffering from limited capacities and thus requiring refinement through non end-to-end training. In this paper, we propose a novel general purpose framework for medical image-to-image translation, titled MedGAN, which operates in an end-to-end manner on the image level. MedGAN builds upon recent advances in the field of generative adversarial networks(GANs) by combining the adversarial framework with a unique combination of non-adversarial losses which captures the high and low frequency components of the desired target modality. Namely, we utilize a discriminator network as a trainable feature extractor which penalizes the discrepancy between the translated medical images and the desired modalities in the pixel and perceptual sense. Moreover, style-transfer losses are utilized to match the textures and fine-structures of the desired target images to the outputs. Additionally, we present a novel generator architecture, titled CasNet, which enhances the sharpness of the translated medical outputs through progressive refinement via encoder decoder pairs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we apply MedGAN on three novel and challenging applications: PET-CT translation, correction of MR motion artefacts and PET image denoising. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with state-of-the-art techniques have emphasized the superior performance of the proposed framework. MedGAN can be directly applied as a general framework for future medical translation tasks.

* 17 pages, 8 figures 
  

Exploring Negatives in Contrastive Learning for Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation

Apr 23, 2022
Yupei Lin, Sen Zhang, Tianshui Chen, Yongyi Lu, Guangping Li, Yukai Shi

Unpaired image-to-image translation aims to find a mapping between the source domain and the target domain. To alleviate the problem of the lack of supervised labels for the source images, cycle-consistency based methods have been proposed for image structure preservation by assuming a reversible relationship between unpaired images. However, this assumption only uses limited correspondence between image pairs. Recently, contrastive learning (CL) has been used to further investigate the image correspondence in unpaired image translation by using patch-based positive/negative learning. Patch-based contrastive routines obtain the positives by self-similarity computation and recognize the rest patches as negatives. This flexible learning paradigm obtains auxiliary contextualized information at a low cost. As the negatives own an impressive sample number, with curiosity, we make an investigation based on a question: are all negatives necessary for feature contrastive learning? Unlike previous CL approaches that use negatives as much as possible, in this paper, we study the negatives from an information-theoretic perspective and introduce a new negative Pruning technology for Unpaired image-to-image Translation (PUT) by sparsifying and ranking the patches. The proposed algorithm is efficient, flexible and enables the model to learn essential information between corresponding patches stably. By putting quality over quantity, only a few negative patches are required to achieve better results. Lastly, we validate the superiority, stability, and versatility of our model through comparative experiments.

* We found that negatives show better effects in contrastive learning by adopting a sample pruning constraint 
  
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