Detecting abrupt changes in real-time data streams from scientific simulations presents a challenging task, demanding the deployment of accurate and efficient algorithms. Identifying change points in live data stream involves continuous scrutiny of incoming observations for deviations in their statistical characteristics, particularly in high-volume data scenarios. Maintaining a balance between sudden change detection and minimizing false alarms is vital. Many existing algorithms for this purpose rely on known probability distributions, limiting their feasibility. In this study, we introduce the Kernel-based Cumulative Sum (KCUSUM) algorithm, a non-parametric extension of the traditional Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) method, which has gained prominence for its efficacy in online change point detection under less restrictive conditions. KCUSUM splits itself by comparing incoming samples directly with reference samples and computes a statistic grounded in the Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) non-parametric framework. This approach extends KCUSUM's pertinence to scenarios where only reference samples are available, such as atomic trajectories of proteins in vacuum, facilitating the detection of deviations from the reference sample without prior knowledge of the data's underlying distribution. Furthermore, by harnessing MMD's inherent random-walk structure, we can theoretically analyze KCUSUM's performance across various use cases, including metrics like expected delay and mean runtime to false alarms. Finally, we discuss real-world use cases from scientific simulations such as NWChem CODAR and protein folding data, demonstrating KCUSUM's practical effectiveness in online change point detection.
* 16 pages. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1903.01661
Reliably reconstructing physical fields from sparse sensor data is a challenge that frequently arises in many scientific domains. In practice, the process generating the data often is not understood to sufficient accuracy. Therefore, there is a growing interest in using the deep neural network route to address the problem. This work presents a novel approach that learns a continuous representation of the physical field using implicit neural representations (INRs). Specifically, after factorizing spatiotemporal variability into spatial and temporal components using the separation of variables technique, the method learns relevant basis functions from sparsely sampled irregular data points to develop a continuous representation of the data. In experimental evaluations, the proposed model outperforms recent INR methods, offering superior reconstruction quality on simulation data from a state-of-the-art climate model and a second dataset that comprises ultra-high resolution satellite-based sea surface temperature fields.
The utility of machine learning has rapidly expanded in the last two decades and presents an ethical challenge. Papernot et. al. developed a technique, known as Private Aggregation of Teacher Ensembles (PATE) to enable federated learning in which multiple teacher models are trained on disjoint datasets. This study is the first to apply PATE to an ensemble of quantum neural networks (QNN) to pave a new way of ensuring privacy in quantum machine learning (QML) models.
Quantum federated learning (QFL) can facilitate collaborative learning across multiple clients using quantum machine learning (QML) models, while preserving data privacy. Although recent advances in QFL span different tasks like classification while leveraging several data types, no prior work has focused on developing a QFL framework that utilizes temporal data to approximate functions useful to analyze the performance of distributed quantum sensing networks. In this paper, a novel QFL framework that is the first to integrate quantum long short-term memory (QLSTM) models with temporal data is proposed. The proposed federated QLSTM (FedQLSTM) framework is exploited for performing the task of function approximation. In this regard, three key use cases are presented: Bessel function approximation, sinusoidal delayed quantum feedback control function approximation, and Struve function approximation. Simulation results confirm that, for all considered use cases, the proposed FedQLSTM framework achieves a faster convergence rate under one local training epoch, minimizing the overall computations, and saving 25-33% of the number of communication rounds needed until convergence compared to an FL framework with classical LSTM models.
Neural style transfer (NST) has evolved significantly in recent years. Yet, despite its rapid progress and advancement, existing NST methods either struggle to transfer aesthetic information from a style effectively or suffer from high computational costs and inefficiencies in feature disentanglement due to using pre-trained models. This work proposes a lightweight but effective model, AesFA -- Aesthetic Feature-Aware NST. The primary idea is to decompose the image via its frequencies to better disentangle aesthetic styles from the reference image while training the entire model in an end-to-end manner to exclude pre-trained models at inference completely. To improve the network's ability to extract more distinct representations and further enhance the stylization quality, this work introduces a new aesthetic feature: contrastive loss. Extensive experiments and ablations show the approach not only outperforms recent NST methods in terms of stylization quality, but it also achieves faster inference. Codes are available at https://github.com/Sooyyoungg/AesFA.
A major concern of deep learning models is the large amount of data that is required to build and train them, much of which is reliant on sensitive and personally identifiable information that is vulnerable to access by third parties. Ideas of using the quantum internet to address this issue have been previously proposed, which would enable fast and completely secure online communications. Previous work has yielded a hybrid quantum-classical transfer learning scheme for classical data and communication with a hub-spoke topology. While quantum communication is secure from eavesdrop attacks and no measurements from quantum to classical translation, due to no cloning theorem, hub-spoke topology is not ideal for quantum communication without quantum memory. Here we seek to improve this model by implementing a decentralized ring topology for the federated learning scheme, where each client is given a portion of the entire dataset and only performs training on that set. We also demonstrate the first successful use of quantum weights for quantum federated learning, which allows us to perform our training entirely in quantum.
High-energy large-scale particle colliders produce data at high speed in the order of 1 terabytes per second in nuclear physics and petabytes per second in high-energy physics. Developing real-time data compression algorithms to reduce such data at high throughput to fit permanent storage has drawn increasing attention. Specifically, at the newly constructed sPHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a time projection chamber is used as the main tracking detector, which records particle trajectories in a volume of a three-dimensional (3D) cylinder. The resulting data are usually very sparse with occupancy around 10.8%. Such sparsity presents a challenge to conventional learning-free lossy compression algorithms, such as SZ, ZFP, and MGARD. The 3D convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach, Bicephalous Convolutional Autoencoder (BCAE), outperforms traditional methods both in compression rate and reconstruction accuracy. BCAE can also utilize the computation power of graphical processing units suitable for deployment in a modern heterogeneous high-performance computing environment. This work introduces two BCAE variants: BCAE++ and BCAE-2D. BCAE++ achieves a 15% better compression ratio and a 77% better reconstruction accuracy measured in mean absolute error compared with BCAE. BCAE-2D treats the radial direction as the channel dimension of an image, resulting in a 3x speedup in compression throughput. In addition, we demonstrate an unbalanced autoencoder with a larger decoder can improve reconstruction accuracy without significantly sacrificing throughput. Lastly, we observe both the BCAE++ and BCAE-2D can benefit more from using half-precision mode in throughput (76-79% increase) without loss in reconstruction accuracy. The source code and links to data and pretrained models can be found at https://github.com/BNL-DAQ-LDRD/NeuralCompression_v2.
In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
The preservation of privacy is a critical concern in the implementation of artificial intelligence on sensitive training data. There are several techniques to preserve data privacy but quantum computations are inherently more secure due to the no-cloning theorem, resulting in a most desirable computational platform on top of the potential quantum advantages. There have been prior works in protecting data privacy by Quantum Federated Learning (QFL) and Quantum Differential Privacy (QDP) studied independently. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior work has addressed both QFL and QDP together yet. Here, we propose to combine these privacy-preserving methods and implement them on the quantum platform, so that we can achieve comprehensive protection against data leakage (QFL) and model inversion attacks (QDP). This implementation promises more efficient and secure artificial intelligence. In this paper, we present a successful implementation of these privacy-preservation methods by performing the binary classification of the Cats vs Dogs dataset. Using our quantum-classical machine learning model, we obtained a test accuracy of over 0.98, while maintaining epsilon values less than 1.3. We show that federated differentially private training is a viable privacy preservation method for quantum machine learning on Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum (NISQ) devices.
While deep neural networks (DNNs) have revolutionized many fields, their fragility to carefully designed adversarial attacks impedes the usage of DNNs in safety-critical applications. In this paper, we strive to explore the robust features which are not affected by the adversarial perturbations, i.e., invariant to the clean image and its adversarial examples, to improve the model's adversarial robustness. Specifically, we propose a feature disentanglement model to segregate the robust features from non-robust features and domain specific features. The extensive experiments on four widely used datasets with different attacks demonstrate that robust features obtained from our model improve the model's adversarial robustness compared to the state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the trained domain discriminator is able to identify the domain specific features from the clean images and adversarial examples almost perfectly. This enables adversarial example detection without incurring additional computational costs. With that, we can also specify different classifiers for clean images and adversarial examples, thereby avoiding any drop in clean image accuracy.