Recently, representation learning over graph networks has gained popularity, with various models showing promising results. Despite this, several challenges persist: 1) most methods are designed for static or discrete-time dynamic graphs; 2) existing continuous-time dynamic graph algorithms focus on a single evolving perspective; and 3) many continuous-time dynamic graph approaches necessitate numerous temporal neighbors to capture long-term dependencies. In response, this paper introduces the Multi-Perspective Feedback-Attention Coupling (MPFA) model. MPFA incorporates information from both evolving and raw perspectives, efficiently learning the interleaved dynamics of observed processes. The evolving perspective employs temporal self-attention to distinguish continuously evolving temporal neighbors for information aggregation. Through dynamic updates, this perspective can capture long-term dependencies using a small number of temporal neighbors. Meanwhile, the raw perspective utilizes a feedback attention module with growth characteristic coefficients to aggregate raw neighborhood information. Experimental results on a self-organizing dataset and seven public datasets validate the efficacy and competitiveness of our proposed model.
Block transmission systems have been proven successful over frequency-selective channels. For time-varying channel such as in high-speed mobile communication and underwater communication, existing equalizers assume that channels over different data frames are independent. However, the real-world channels over different data frames are correlated, thereby indicating potentials for performance improvement. In this paper, we propose a joint channel estimation and equalization/decoding algorithm for a single-carrier system that exploits temporal correlations of channel between transmitted data frames. Leveraging the concept of dynamic compressive sensing, our method can utilize the information of several data frames to achieve better performance. The information not only passes between the channel and symbol, but also the channels over different data frames. Numerical simulations using an extensively validated underwater acoustic model with a time-varying channel establish that the proposed algorithm outperforms the former bilinear generalized approximate message passing equalizer and classic minimum mean square error turbo equalizer in bit error rate and channel estimation normalized mean square error. The algorithm idea we present can also find applications in other bilinear multiple measurements vector compressive sensing problems.
Designing effective architectures is one of the key factors behind the success of deep neural networks. Existing deep architectures are either manually designed or automatically searched by some Neural Architecture Search (NAS) methods. However, even a well-designed/searched architecture may still contain many nonsignificant or redundant modules/operations. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the operations inside an architecture to improve the performance without introducing extra computational cost. To this end, we have proposed a Neural Architecture Transformer (NAT) method which casts the optimization problem into a Markov Decision Process (MDP) and seeks to replace the redundant operations with more efficient operations, such as skip or null connection. Note that NAT only considers a small number of possible transitions and thus comes with a limited search/transition space. As a result, such a small search space may hamper the performance of architecture optimization. To address this issue, we propose a Neural Architecture Transformer++ (NAT++) method which further enlarges the set of candidate transitions to improve the performance of architecture optimization. Specifically, we present a two-level transition rule to obtain valid transitions, i.e., allowing operations to have more efficient types (e.g., convolution->separable convolution) or smaller kernel sizes (e.g., 5x5->3x3). Note that different operations may have different valid transitions. We further propose a Binary-Masked Softmax (BMSoftmax) layer to omit the possible invalid transitions. Extensive experiments on several benchmark datasets show that the transformed architecture significantly outperforms both its original counterpart and the architectures optimized by existing methods.
Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has been widely used in many applications that need material decomposition. Image-domain methods directly decompose material images from high- and low-energy attenuation images, and thus, are susceptible to noise and artifacts on attenuation images. To obtain high-quality material images, various data-driven methods have been proposed. Iterative neural network (INN) methods combine regression NNs and model-based image reconstruction algorithm. INNs reduced the generalization error of (noniterative) deep regression NNs, and achieved high-quality reconstruction in diverse medical imaging applications. BCD-Net is a recent INN architecture that incorporates imaging refining NNs into the block coordinate descent (BCD) model-based image reconstruction algorithm. We propose a new INN architecture, distinct cross-material BCD-Net, for DECT material decomposition. The proposed INN architecture uses distinct cross-material convolutional neural network (CNN) in image refining modules, and uses image decomposition physics in image reconstruction modules. The distinct cross-material CNN refiners incorporate distinct encoding-decoding filters and cross-material model that captures correlations between different materials. We interpret the distinct cross-material CNN refiner with patch perspective. Numerical experiments with extended cardiactorso (XCAT) phantom and clinical data show that proposed distinct cross-material BCD-Net significantly improves the image quality over several image-domain material decomposition methods, including a conventional model-based image decomposition (MBID) method using an edge-preserving regularizer, a state-of-the-art MBID method using pre-learned material-wise sparsifying transforms, and a noniterative deep CNN denoiser.
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in machine learning-based models and techniques for low-dose X-ray CT (LDCT) imaging tasks. The methods can typically be categorized into supervised learning methods and unsupervised or model-based learning methods. Supervised learning methods have recently shown success in image restoration tasks. However, they often rely on large training sets. Model-based learning methods such as dictionary or transform learning do not require large or paired training sets and often have good generalization properties, since they learn general properties of CT image sets. Recent works have shown the promising reconstruction performance of methods such as PWLS-ULTRA that rely on clustering the underlying (reconstructed) image patches into a learned union of transforms. In this paper, we propose a new Supervised-UnsuPERvised (SUPER) reconstruction framework for LDCT image reconstruction that combines the benefits of supervised learning methods and (unsupervised) transform learning-based methods such as PWLS-ULTRA that involve highly image-adaptive clustering. The SUPER model consists of several layers, each of which includes a deep network learned in a supervised manner and an unsupervised iterative method that involves image-adaptive components. The SUPER reconstruction algorithms are learned in a greedy manner from training data. The proposed SUPER learning methods dramatically outperform both the constituent supervised learning-based networks and iterative algorithms for LDCT, and use much fewer iterations in the iterative reconstruction modules.
* Accepted to International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) -
Learning for Computational Imaging (LCI) Workshop, 2019
In sponsored search, keyword recommendations help advertisers to achieve much better performance within limited budget. Many works have been done to mine numerous candidate keywords from search logs or landing pages. However, the strategy to select from given candidates remains to be improved. The existing relevance-based, popularity-based and regular combinatorial strategies fail to take the internal or external competitions among keywords into consideration. In this paper, we regard keyword recommendations as a combinatorial optimization problem and solve it with a modified pointer network structure. The model is trained on an actor-critic based deep reinforcement learning framework. A pre-clustering method called Equal Size K-Means is proposed to accelerate the training and testing procedure on the framework by reducing the action space. The performance of framework is evaluated both in offline and online environments, and remarkable improvements can be observed.
* In Proceedings of 2019 AdKDD, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, August,
2019, 6 pages * 6 pages, adKDD 2019
Dual energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging plays an important role in advanced imaging applications due to its material decomposition capability. Image-domain decomposition operates directly on CT images using linear matrix inversion, but the decomposed material images can be severely degraded by noise and artifacts. This paper proposes a new method dubbed DECT-MULTRA for image-domain DECT material decomposition that combines conventional penalized weighted-least squares (PWLS) estimation with regularization based on a mixed union of learned transforms (MULTRA) model. Our proposed approach pre-learns a union of common-material sparsifying transforms from patches extracted from all the basis materials, and a union of cross-material sparsifying transforms from multi-material patches. The common-material transforms capture the common properties among different material images, while the cross-material transforms capture the cross-dependencies. The proposed PWLS formulation is optimized efficiently by alternating between an image update step and a sparse coding and clustering step, with both of these steps having closed-form solutions. The effectiveness of our method is validated with both XCAT phantom and clinical head data. The results demonstrate that our proposed method provides superior material image quality and decomposition accuracy compared to other competing methods.
A major challenge in X-ray computed tomography (CT) is reducing radiation dose while maintaining high quality of reconstructed images. To reduce the radiation dose, one can reduce the number of projection views (sparse-view CT); however, it becomes difficult to achieve high quality image reconstruction as the number of projection views decreases. Researchers have applied the concept of learning sparse representations from (high-quality) CT image dataset to the sparse-view CT reconstruction. We propose a new statistical CT reconstruction model that combines penalized weighted-least squares (PWLS) and $\ell_1$ regularization with learned sparsifying transform (PWLS-ST-$\ell_1$), and an algorithm for PWLS-ST-$\ell_1$. Numerical experiments for sparse-view 2D fan-beam CT and 3D axial cone-beam CT show that the $\ell_1$ regularizer significantly improves the sharpness of edges of reconstructed images compared to the CT reconstruction methods using edge-preserving regularizer and $\ell_2$ regularization with learned ST.
* The first two authors contributed equally to this work; 8 pages, 5