In recent years, audio-driven 3D facial animation has gained significant attention, particularly in applications such as virtual reality, gaming, and video conferencing. However, accurately modeling the intricate and subtle dynamics of facial expressions remains a challenge. Most existing studies approach the facial animation task as a single regression problem, which often fail to capture the intrinsic inter-modal relationship between speech signals and 3D facial animation and overlook their inherent consistency. Moreover, due to the limited availability of 3D-audio-visual datasets, approaches learning with small-size samples have poor generalizability that decreases the performance. To address these issues, in this study, we propose a cross-modal dual-learning framework, termed DualTalker, aiming at improving data usage efficiency as well as relating cross-modal dependencies. The framework is trained jointly with the primary task (audio-driven facial animation) and its dual task (lip reading) and shares common audio/motion encoder components. Our joint training framework facilitates more efficient data usage by leveraging information from both tasks and explicitly capitalizing on the complementary relationship between facial motion and audio to improve performance. Furthermore, we introduce an auxiliary cross-modal consistency loss to mitigate the potential over-smoothing underlying the cross-modal complementary representations, enhancing the mapping of subtle facial expression dynamics. Through extensive experiments and a perceptual user study conducted on the VOCA and BIWI datasets, we demonstrate that our approach outperforms current state-of-the-art methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. We have made our code and video demonstrations available at https://github.com/sabrina-su/iadf.git.
The video-language (VL) pretraining has achieved remarkable improvement in multiple downstream tasks. However, the current VL pretraining framework is hard to extend to multiple modalities (N modalities, N>=3) beyond vision and language. We thus propose LanguageBind, taking the language as the bind across different modalities because the language modality is well-explored and contains rich semantics. Specifically, we freeze the language encoder acquired by VL pretraining, then train encoders for other modalities with contrastive learning. As a result, all modalities are mapped to a shared feature space, implementing multi-modal semantic alignment. While LanguageBind ensures that we can extend VL modalities to N modalities, we also need a high-quality dataset with alignment data pairs centered on language. We thus propose VIDAL-10M with Video, Infrared, Depth, Audio and their corresponding Language, naming as VIDAL-10M. In our VIDAL-10M, all videos are from short video platforms with complete semantics rather than truncated segments from long videos, and all the video, depth, infrared, and audio modalities are aligned to their textual descriptions. After pretraining on VIDAL-10M, we outperform ImageBind by 5.8% R@1 on the MSR-VTT dataset with only 15% of the parameters in the zero-shot video-text retrieval task. Beyond this, our LanguageBind has greatly improved in the zero-shot video, audio, depth, and infrared understanding tasks. For instance, LanguageBind surpassing InterVideo by 1.9% on MSR-VTT, 8.8% on MSVD, 6.3% on DiDeMo, and 4.4% on ActivityNet. On the LLVIP and NYU-D datasets, LanguageBind outperforms ImageBind with 23.8% and 11.1% top-1 accuracy. Code address: https://github.com/PKU-YuanGroup/LanguageBind.
Leveraging external knowledge to enhance the reasoning ability is crucial for commonsense question answering. However, the existing knowledge bases heavily rely on manual annotation which unavoidably causes deficiency in coverage of world-wide commonsense knowledge. Accordingly, the knowledge bases fail to be flexible enough to support the reasoning over diverse questions. Recently, large-scale language models (LLMs) have dramatically improved the intelligence in capturing and leveraging knowledge, which opens up a new way to address the issue of eliciting knowledge from language models. We propose a Unified Facts Obtaining (UFO) approach. UFO turns LLMs into knowledge sources and produces relevant facts (knowledge statements) for the given question. We first develop a unified prompt consisting of demonstrations that cover different aspects of commonsense and different question styles. On this basis, we instruct the LLMs to generate question-related supporting facts for various commonsense questions via prompting. After facts generation, we apply a dense retrieval-based fact selection strategy to choose the best-matched fact. This kind of facts will be fed into the answer inference model along with the question. Notably, due to the design of unified prompts, UFO can support reasoning in various commonsense aspects (including general commonsense, scientific commonsense, and social commonsense). Extensive experiments on CommonsenseQA 2.0, OpenBookQA, QASC, and Social IQA benchmarks show that UFO significantly improves the performance of the inference model and outperforms manually constructed knowledge sources.
Generative commonsense question answering (GenCQA) is a task of automatically generating a list of answers given a question. The answer list is required to cover all reasonable answers. This presents the considerable challenges of producing diverse answers and ranking them properly. Incorporating a variety of closely-related background knowledge into the encoding of questions enables the generation of different answers. Meanwhile, learning to distinguish positive answers from negative ones potentially enhances the probabilistic estimation of plausibility, and accordingly, the plausibility-based ranking. Therefore, we propose a Knowledge Enhancement and Plausibility Ranking (KEPR) approach grounded on the Generate-Then-Rank pipeline architecture. Specifically, we expand questions in terms of Wiktionary commonsense knowledge of keywords, and reformulate them with normalized patterns. Dense passage retrieval is utilized for capturing relevant knowledge, and different PLM-based (BART, GPT2 and T5) networks are used for generating answers. On the other hand, we develop an ELECTRA-based answer ranking model, where logistic regression is conducted during training, with the aim of approximating different levels of plausibility in a polar classification scenario. Extensive experiments on the benchmark ProtoQA show that KEPR obtains substantial improvements, compared to the strong baselines. Within the experimental models, the T5-based GenCQA with KEPR obtains the best performance, which is up to 60.91% at the primary canonical metric Inc@3. It outperforms the existing GenCQA models on the current leaderboard of ProtoQA.
We present a pipeline of Image to Vector (Img2Vec) for masked image modeling (MIM) with deep features. To study which type of deep features is appropriate for MIM as a learning target, we propose a simple MIM framework with serials of well-trained self-supervised models to convert an Image to a feature Vector as the learning target of MIM, where the feature extractor is also known as a teacher model. Surprisingly, we empirically find that an MIM model benefits more from image features generated by some lighter models (e.g., ResNet-50, 26M) than from those by a cumbersome teacher like Transformer-based models (e.g., ViT-Large, 307M). To analyze this remarkable phenomenon, we devise a novel attribute, token diversity, to evaluate the characteristics of generated features from different models. Token diversity measures the feature dissimilarity among different tokens. Through extensive experiments and visualizations, we hypothesize that beyond the acknowledgment that a large model can improve MIM, a high token-diversity of a teacher model is also crucial. Based on the above discussion, Img2Vec adopts a teacher model with high token-diversity to generate image features. Img2Vec pre-trained on ImageNet unlabeled data with ViT-B yields 85.1\% top-1 accuracy on fine-tuning. Moreover, we scale up Img2Vec on larger models, ViT-L and ViT-H, and get $86.7\%$ and $87.5\%$ accuracy respectively. It also achieves state-of-the-art results on other downstream tasks, e.g., 51.8\% mAP on COCO and 50.7\% mIoU on ADE20K. Img2Vec is a simple yet effective framework tailored to deep feature MIM learning, accomplishing superb comprehensive performance on representative vision tasks.
Deep neural network, despite its remarkable capability of discriminating targeted in-distribution samples, shows poor performance on detecting anomalous out-of-distribution data. To address this defect, state-of-the-art solutions choose to train deep networks on an auxiliary dataset of outliers. Various training criteria for these auxiliary outliers are proposed based on heuristic intuitions. However, we find that these intuitively designed outlier training criteria can hurt in-distribution learning and eventually lead to inferior performance. To this end, we identify three causes of the in-distribution incompatibility: contradictory gradient, false likelihood, and distribution shift. Based on our new understandings, we propose a new out-of-distribution detection method by adapting both the top-design of deep models and the loss function. Our method achieves in-distribution compatibility by pursuing less interference with the probabilistic characteristic of in-distribution features. On several benchmarks, our method not only achieves the state-of-the-art out-of-distribution detection performance but also improves the in-distribution accuracy.
The security of deep neural networks (DNNs) has attracted increasing attention due to their widespread use in various applications. Recently, the deployed DNNs have been demonstrated to be vulnerable to Trojan attacks, which manipulate model parameters with bit flips to inject a hidden behavior and activate it by a specific trigger pattern. However, all existing Trojan attacks adopt noticeable patch-based triggers (e.g., a square pattern), making them perceptible to humans and easy to be spotted by machines. In this paper, we present a novel attack, namely hardly perceptible Trojan attack (HPT). HPT crafts hardly perceptible Trojan images by utilizing the additive noise and per pixel flow field to tweak the pixel values and positions of the original images, respectively. To achieve superior attack performance, we propose to jointly optimize bit flips, additive noise, and flow field. Since the weight bits of the DNNs are binary, this problem is very hard to be solved. We handle the binary constraint with equivalent replacement and provide an effective optimization algorithm. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, SVHN, and ImageNet datasets show that the proposed HPT can generate hardly perceptible Trojan images, while achieving comparable or better attack performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The code is available at: https://github.com/jiawangbai/HPT.
To explore the vulnerability of deep neural networks (DNNs), many attack paradigms have been well studied, such as the poisoning-based backdoor attack in the training stage and the adversarial attack in the inference stage. In this paper, we study a novel attack paradigm, which modifies model parameters in the deployment stage. Considering the effectiveness and stealthiness goals, we provide a general formulation to perform the bit-flip based weight attack, where the effectiveness term could be customized depending on the attacker's purpose. Furthermore, we present two cases of the general formulation with different malicious purposes, i.e., single sample attack (SSA) and triggered samples attack (TSA). To this end, we formulate this problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) to jointly determine the state of the binary bits (0 or 1) in the memory and learn the sample modification. Utilizing the latest technique in integer programming, we equivalently reformulate this MIP problem as a continuous optimization problem, which can be effectively and efficiently solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) method. Consequently, the flipped critical bits can be easily determined through optimization, rather than using a heuristic strategy. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of SSA and TSA in attacking DNNs.