Fine-tuning pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs), e.g., CLIP, for the open-world generalization has gained increasing popularity due to its practical value. However, performance advancements are limited when relying solely on intricate algorithmic designs for a single model, even one exhibiting strong performance, e.g., CLIP-ViT-B/16. This paper, for the first time, explores the collaborative potential of leveraging much weaker VLMs to enhance the generalization of a robust single model. The affirmative findings motivate us to address the generalization problem from a novel perspective, i.e., ensemble of pre-trained VLMs. We introduce three customized ensemble strategies, each tailored to one specific scenario. Firstly, we introduce the zero-shot ensemble, automatically adjusting the logits of different models based on their confidence when only pre-trained VLMs are available. Furthermore, for scenarios with extra few-shot samples, we propose the training-free and tuning ensemble, offering flexibility based on the availability of computing resources. The proposed ensemble strategies are evaluated on zero-shot, base-to-new, and cross-dataset generalization, achieving new state-of-the-art performance. Notably, this work represents an initial stride toward enhancing the generalization performance of VLMs via ensemble. The code is available at https://github.com/zhiheLu/Ensemble_VLM.git.
Contrastive Vision-Language Pre-training, known as CLIP, has shown promising effectiveness in addressing downstream image recognition tasks. However, recent works revealed that the CLIP model can be implanted with a downstream-oriented backdoor. On downstream tasks, one victim model performs well on clean samples but predicts a specific target class whenever a specific trigger is present. For injecting a backdoor, existing attacks depend on a large amount of additional data to maliciously fine-tune the entire pre-trained CLIP model, which makes them inapplicable to data-limited scenarios. In this work, motivated by the recent success of learnable prompts, we address this problem by injecting a backdoor into the CLIP model in the prompt learning stage. Our method named BadCLIP is built on a novel and effective mechanism in backdoor attacks on CLIP, i.e., influencing both the image and text encoders with the trigger. It consists of a learnable trigger applied to images and a trigger-aware context generator, such that the trigger can change text features via trigger-aware prompts, resulting in a powerful and generalizable attack. Extensive experiments conducted on 11 datasets verify that the clean accuracy of BadCLIP is similar to those of advanced prompt learning methods and the attack success rate is higher than 99% in most cases. BadCLIP is also generalizable to unseen classes, and shows a strong generalization capability under cross-dataset and cross-domain settings.
Adapter-style efficient transfer learning (ETL) has shown excellent performance in the tuning of vision-language models (VLMs) under the low-data regime, where only a few additional parameters are introduced to excavate the task-specific knowledge based on the general and powerful representation of VLMs. However, most adapter-style works face two limitations: (i) modeling task-specific knowledge with a single modality only; and (ii) overlooking the exploitation of the inter-class relationships in downstream tasks, thereby leading to sub-optimal solutions. To mitigate that, we propose an effective adapter-style tuning strategy, dubbed GraphAdapter, which performs the textual adapter by explicitly modeling the dual-modality structure knowledge (i.e., the correlation of different semantics/classes in textual and visual modalities) with a dual knowledge graph. In particular, the dual knowledge graph is established with two sub-graphs, i.e., a textual knowledge sub-graph, and a visual knowledge sub-graph, where the nodes and edges represent the semantics/classes and their correlations in two modalities, respectively. This enables the textual feature of each prompt to leverage the task-specific structure knowledge from both textual and visual modalities, yielding a more effective classifier for downstream tasks. Extensive experimental results on 11 benchmark datasets reveal that our GraphAdapter significantly outperforms previous adapter-based methods. The code will be released at https://github.com/lixinustc/GraphAdapter
* Accepted by NeurIPS 2023. The manuscript will be further revised
based on the reviews
The goal of image restoration (IR), a fundamental issue in computer vision, is to restore a high-quality (HQ) image from its degraded low-quality (LQ) observation. Multiple HQ solutions may correspond to an LQ input in this poorly posed problem, creating an ambiguous solution space. This motivates the investigation and incorporation of prior knowledge in order to effectively constrain the solution space and enhance the quality of the restored images. In spite of the pervasive use of hand-crafted and learned priors in IR, limited attention has been paid to the incorporation of knowledge from large-scale foundation models. In this paper, we for the first time leverage the prior knowledge of the state-of-the-art segment anything model (SAM) to boost the performance of existing IR networks in an parameter-efficient tuning manner. In particular, the choice of SAM is based on its robustness to image degradations, such that HQ semantic masks can be extracted from it. In order to leverage semantic priors and enhance restoration quality, we propose a lightweight SAM prior tuning (SPT) unit. This plug-and-play component allows us to effectively integrate semantic priors into existing IR networks, resulting in significant improvements in restoration quality. As the only trainable module in our method, the SPT unit has the potential to improve both efficiency and scalability. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing a variety of methods across multiple tasks, such as image super-resolution and color image denoising.
The primary challenge in video super-resolution (VSR) is to handle large motions in the input frames, which makes it difficult to accurately aggregate information from multiple frames. Existing works either adopt deformable convolutions or estimate optical flow as a prior to establish correspondences between frames for the effective alignment and fusion. However, they fail to take into account the valuable semantic information that can greatly enhance it; and flow-based methods heavily rely on the accuracy of a flow estimate model, which may not provide precise flows given two low-resolution frames. In this paper, we investigate a more robust and semantic-aware prior for enhanced VSR by utilizing the Segment Anything Model (SAM), a powerful foundational model that is less susceptible to image degradation. To use the SAM-based prior, we propose a simple yet effective module -- SAM-guidEd refinEment Module (SEEM), which can enhance both alignment and fusion procedures by the utilization of semantic information. This light-weight plug-in module is specifically designed to not only leverage the attention mechanism for the generation of semantic-aware feature but also be easily and seamlessly integrated into existing methods. Concretely, we apply our SEEM to two representative methods, EDVR and BasicVSR, resulting in consistently improved performance with minimal implementation effort, on three widely used VSR datasets: Vimeo-90K, REDS and Vid4. More importantly, we found that the proposed SEEM can advance the existing methods in an efficient tuning manner, providing increased flexibility in adjusting the balance between performance and the number of training parameters. Code will be open-source soon.
Deep hashing has been extensively applied to massive image retrieval due to its efficiency and effectiveness. Recently, several adversarial attacks have been presented to reveal the vulnerability of deep hashing models against adversarial examples. However, existing attack methods suffer from degraded performance or inefficiency because they underutilize the semantic relations between original samples or spend a lot of time learning these relations with a deep neural network. In this paper, we propose a novel Pharos-guided Attack, dubbed PgA, to evaluate the adversarial robustness of deep hashing networks reliably and efficiently. Specifically, we design pharos code to represent the semantics of the benign image, which preserves the similarity to semantically relevant samples and dissimilarity to irrelevant ones. It is proven that we can quickly calculate the pharos code via a simple math formula. Accordingly, PgA can directly conduct a reliable and efficient attack on deep hashing-based retrieval by maximizing the similarity between the hash code of the adversarial example and the pharos code. Extensive experiments on the benchmark datasets verify that the proposed algorithm outperforms the prior state-of-the-arts in both attack strength and speed.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2204.10779
With the thriving of deep learning in processing point cloud data, recent works show that backdoor attacks pose a severe security threat to 3D vision applications. The attacker injects the backdoor into the 3D model by poisoning a few training samples with trigger, such that the backdoored model performs well on clean samples but behaves maliciously when the trigger pattern appears. Existing attacks often insert some additional points into the point cloud as the trigger, or utilize a linear transformation (e.g., rotation) to construct the poisoned point cloud. However, the effects of these poisoned samples are likely to be weakened or even eliminated by some commonly used pre-processing techniques for 3D point cloud, e.g., outlier removal or rotation augmentation. In this paper, we propose a novel imperceptible and robust backdoor attack (IRBA) to tackle this challenge. We utilize a nonlinear and local transformation, called weighted local transformation (WLT), to construct poisoned samples with unique transformations. As there are several hyper-parameters and randomness in WLT, it is difficult to produce two similar transformations. Consequently, poisoned samples with unique transformations are likely to be resistant to aforementioned pre-processing techniques. Besides, as the controllability and smoothness of the distortion caused by a fixed WLT, the generated poisoned samples are also imperceptible to human inspection. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets and four models show that IRBA achieves 80%+ ASR in most cases even with pre-processing techniques, which is significantly higher than previous state-of-the-art attacks.
The security of deep neural networks (DNNs) has attracted increasing attention due to their widespread use in various applications. Recently, the deployed DNNs have been demonstrated to be vulnerable to Trojan attacks, which manipulate model parameters with bit flips to inject a hidden behavior and activate it by a specific trigger pattern. However, all existing Trojan attacks adopt noticeable patch-based triggers (e.g., a square pattern), making them perceptible to humans and easy to be spotted by machines. In this paper, we present a novel attack, namely hardly perceptible Trojan attack (HPT). HPT crafts hardly perceptible Trojan images by utilizing the additive noise and per pixel flow field to tweak the pixel values and positions of the original images, respectively. To achieve superior attack performance, we propose to jointly optimize bit flips, additive noise, and flow field. Since the weight bits of the DNNs are binary, this problem is very hard to be solved. We handle the binary constraint with equivalent replacement and provide an effective optimization algorithm. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, SVHN, and ImageNet datasets show that the proposed HPT can generate hardly perceptible Trojan images, while achieving comparable or better attack performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The code is available at: https://github.com/jiawangbai/HPT.
To explore the vulnerability of deep neural networks (DNNs), many attack paradigms have been well studied, such as the poisoning-based backdoor attack in the training stage and the adversarial attack in the inference stage. In this paper, we study a novel attack paradigm, which modifies model parameters in the deployment stage. Considering the effectiveness and stealthiness goals, we provide a general formulation to perform the bit-flip based weight attack, where the effectiveness term could be customized depending on the attacker's purpose. Furthermore, we present two cases of the general formulation with different malicious purposes, i.e., single sample attack (SSA) and triggered samples attack (TSA). To this end, we formulate this problem as a mixed integer programming (MIP) to jointly determine the state of the binary bits (0 or 1) in the memory and learn the sample modification. Utilizing the latest technique in integer programming, we equivalently reformulate this MIP problem as a continuous optimization problem, which can be effectively and efficiently solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) method. Consequently, the flipped critical bits can be easily determined through optimization, rather than using a heuristic strategy. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of SSA and TSA in attacking DNNs.
* Extension of our ICLR 2021 work: arXiv:2102.10496
The transformer models have shown promising effectiveness in dealing with various vision tasks. However, compared with training Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models, training Vision Transformer (ViT) models is more difficult and relies on the large-scale training set. To explain this observation we make a hypothesis that ViT models are less effective in capturing the high-frequency components of images than CNN models, and verify it by a frequency analysis. Inspired by this finding, we first investigate the effects of existing techniques for improving ViT models from a new frequency perspective, and find that the success of some techniques (e.g., RandAugment) can be attributed to the better usage of the high-frequency components. Then, to compensate for this insufficient ability of ViT models, we propose HAT, which directly augments high-frequency components of images via adversarial training. We show that HAT can consistently boost the performance of various ViT models (e.g., +1.2% for ViT-B, +0.5% for Swin-B), and especially enhance the advanced model VOLO-D5 to 87.3% that only uses ImageNet-1K data, and the superiority can also be maintained on out-of-distribution data and transferred to downstream tasks.