Generalized zero-shot learning (GZSL) aims to train a model for classifying data samples under the condition that some output classes are unknown during supervised learning. To address this challenging task, GZSL leverages semantic information of both seen (source) and unseen (target) classes to bridge the gap between both seen and unseen classes. Since its introduction, many GZSL models have been formulated. In this review paper, we present a comprehensive review of GZSL. Firstly, we provide an overview of GZSL including the problems and challenging issues. Then, we introduce a hierarchical categorization of the GZSL methods and discuss the representative methods of each category. In addition, we discuss several research directions for future studies.
Imagery texts are usually organized as a hierarchy of several visual elements, i.e. characters, words, text lines and text blocks. Among these elements, character is the most basic one for various languages such as Western, Chinese, Japanese, mathematical expression and etc. It is natural and convenient to construct a common text detection engine based on character detectors. However, training character detectors requires a vast of location annotated characters, which are expensive to obtain. Actually, the existing real text datasets are mostly annotated in word or line level. To remedy this dilemma, we propose a weakly supervised framework that can utilize word annotations, either in tight quadrangles or the more loose bounding boxes, for character detector training. When applied in scene text detection, we are thus able to train a robust character detector by exploiting word annotations in the rich large-scale real scene text datasets, e.g. ICDAR15 and COCO-text. The character detector acts as a key role in the pipeline of our text detection engine. It achieves the state-of-the-art performance on several challenging scene text detection benchmarks. We also demonstrate the flexibility of our pipeline by various scenarios, including deformed text detection and math expression recognition.