Online recruitment platforms typically employ Person-Job Fit models in the core service that automatically match suitable job seekers with appropriate job positions. While existing works leverage historical or contextual information, they often disregard a crucial aspect: job seekers' social relationships in professional networks. This paper emphasizes the importance of incorporating professional networks into the Person-Job Fit model. Our innovative approach consists of two stages: (1) defining a Workplace Heterogeneous Information Network (WHIN) to capture heterogeneous knowledge, including professional connections and pre-training representations of various entities using a heterogeneous graph neural network; (2) designing a Contextual Social Attention Graph Neural Network (CSAGNN) that supplements users' missing information with professional connections' contextual information. We introduce a job-specific attention mechanism in CSAGNN to handle noisy professional networks, leveraging pre-trained entity representations from WHIN. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach through experimental evaluations conducted across three real-world recruitment datasets from LinkedIn, showing superior performance compared to baseline models.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated considerable advances, and several claims have been made about their exceeding human performance. However, in real-world tasks, domain knowledge is often required. Low-resource learning methods like Active Learning (AL) have been proposed to tackle the cost of domain expert annotation, raising this question: Can LLMs surpass compact models trained with expert annotations in domain-specific tasks? In this work, we conduct an empirical experiment on four datasets from three different domains comparing SOTA LLMs with small models trained on expert annotations with AL. We found that small models can outperform GPT-3.5 with a few hundreds of labeled data, and they achieve higher or similar performance with GPT-4 despite that they are hundreds time smaller. Based on these findings, we posit that LLM predictions can be used as a warmup method in real-world applications and human experts remain indispensable in tasks involving data annotation driven by domain-specific knowledge.
While most existing works on LLM prompt-engineering focus only on how to select a better set of data samples inside one single prompt input (In-Context Learning or ICL), why can't we design and leverage multiple prompt inputs together to further improve the LLM performance? In this work, we propose In-Context Sampling (ICS), a low-resource LLM prompt-engineering technique to produce the most confident prediction results by optimizing the construction of multiple ICL prompt inputs. Extensive experiments with two SOTA LLMs (FlanT5-XL and Mistral-7B) on three NLI datasets (e-SNLI, Multi-NLI, and ANLI) illustrate that ICS can consistently enhance LLM's prediction performance and confidence. An ablation study suggests that a diversity-based ICS strategy may further improve LLM's performance, which sheds light on a new yet promising future research direction.
AI models (including LLM) often rely on narrative question-answering (QA) datasets to provide customized QA functionalities to support downstream children education applications; however, existing datasets only include QA pairs that are grounded within the given storybook content, but children can learn more when teachers refer the storybook content to real-world knowledge (e.g., commonsense knowledge). We introduce the FairytaleCQA dataset, which is annotated by children education experts, to supplement 278 storybook narratives with educationally appropriate commonsense knowledge. The dataset has 5,868 QA pairs that not only originate from the storybook narrative but also contain the commonsense knowledge grounded by an external knowledge graph (i.e., ConceptNet). A follow-up experiment shows that a smaller model (T5-large) fine-tuned with FairytaleCQA reliably outperforms much larger prompt-engineered LLM (e.g., GPT-4) in this new QA-pair generation task (QAG). This result suggests that: 1) our dataset brings novel challenges to existing LLMs, and 2) human experts' data annotation are still critical as they have much nuanced knowledge that LLMs do not know in the children educational domain.
Today's AI systems for medical decision support often succeed on benchmark datasets in research papers but fail in real-world deployment. This work focuses on the decision making of sepsis, an acute life-threatening systematic infection that requires an early diagnosis with high uncertainty from the clinician. Our aim is to explore the design requirements for AI systems that can support clinical experts in making better decisions for the early diagnosis of sepsis. The study begins with a formative study investigating why clinical experts abandon an existing AI-powered Sepsis predictive module in their electrical health record (EHR) system. We argue that a human-centered AI system needs to support human experts in the intermediate stages of a medical decision-making process (e.g., generating hypotheses or gathering data), instead of focusing only on the final decision. Therefore, we build SepsisLab based on a state-of-the-art AI algorithm and extend it to predict the future projection of sepsis development, visualize the prediction uncertainty, and propose actionable suggestions (i.e., which additional laboratory tests can be collected) to reduce such uncertainty. Through heuristic evaluation with six clinicians using our prototype system, we demonstrate that SepsisLab enables a promising human-AI collaboration paradigm for the future of AI-assisted sepsis diagnosis and other high-stakes medical decision making.
Data annotation is a costly task; thus, researchers have proposed low-scenario learning techniques like Active-Learning (AL) to support human annotators; Yet, existing AL works focus only on the label, but overlook the natural language explanation of a data point, despite that real-world humans (e.g., doctors) often need both the labels and the corresponding explanations at the same time. This work proposes a novel AL architecture to support and reduce human annotations of both labels and explanations in low-resource scenarios. Our AL architecture incorporates an explanation-generation model that can explicitly generate natural language explanations for the prediction model and for assisting humans' decision-making in real-world. For our AL framework, we design a data diversity-based AL data selection strategy that leverages the explanation annotations. The automated AL simulation evaluations demonstrate that our data selection strategy consistently outperforms traditional data diversity-based strategy; furthermore, human evaluation demonstrates that humans prefer our generated explanations to the SOTA explanation-generation system.
Biomedical Question Answering aims to obtain an answer to the given question from the biomedical domain. Due to its high requirement of biomedical domain knowledge, it is difficult for the model to learn domain knowledge from limited training data. We propose a contextual embedding method that combines open-domain QA model \aoa and \biobert model pre-trained on biomedical domain data. We adopt unsupervised pre-training on large biomedical corpus and supervised fine-tuning on biomedical question answering dataset. Additionally, we adopt an MLP-based model weighting layer to automatically exploit the advantages of two models to provide the correct answer. The public dataset \biomrc constructed from PubMed corpus is used to evaluate our method. Experimental results show that our model outperforms state-of-the-art system by a large margin.