The emergence of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT and LLaMA encounter limitations in domain-specific tasks, with these models often lacking depth and accuracy in specialized areas, and exhibiting a decrease in general capabilities when fine-tuned, particularly analysis ability in small sized models. To address these gaps, we introduce ICE-GRT, utilizing Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) grounded in Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), demonstrating remarkable ability in in-domain scenarios without compromising general task performance. Our exploration of ICE-GRT highlights its understanding and reasoning ability to not only generate robust answers but also to provide detailed analyses of the reasons behind the answer. This capability marks a significant progression beyond the scope of Supervised Fine-Tuning models. The success of ICE-GRT is dependent on several crucial factors, including Appropriate Data, Reward Size Scaling, KL-Control, Advantage Normalization, etc. The ICE-GRT model exhibits state-of-the-art performance in domain-specific tasks and across 12 general Language tasks against equivalent size and even larger size LLMs, highlighting the effectiveness of our approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the ICE-GRT, underscoring the significant advancements it brings to the field of LLM.
Our previously proposed MossFormer has achieved promising performance in monaural speech separation. However, it predominantly adopts a self-attention-based MossFormer module, which tends to emphasize longer-range, coarser-scale dependencies, with a deficiency in effectively modelling finer-scale recurrent patterns. In this paper, we introduce a novel hybrid model that provides the capabilities to model both long-range, coarse-scale dependencies and fine-scale recurrent patterns by integrating a recurrent module into the MossFormer framework. Instead of applying the recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that use traditional recurrent connections, we present a recurrent module based on a feedforward sequential memory network (FSMN), which is considered "RNN-free" recurrent network due to the ability to capture recurrent patterns without using recurrent connections. Our recurrent module mainly comprises an enhanced dilated FSMN block by using gated convolutional units (GCU) and dense connections. In addition, a bottleneck layer and an output layer are also added for controlling information flow. The recurrent module relies on linear projections and convolutions for seamless, parallel processing of the entire sequence. The integrated MossFormer2 hybrid model demonstrates remarkable enhancements over MossFormer and surpasses other state-of-the-art methods in WSJ0-2/3mix, Libri2Mix, and WHAM!/WHAMR! benchmarks.
Recently, unified speech-text models, such as SpeechGPT, VioLA, and AudioPaLM, have achieved remarkable performance on speech tasks. These models convert continuous speech signals into discrete tokens (speech discretization) and merge text and speech tokens into a shared vocabulary. Then they train a single decoder-only Transformer on a mixture of speech tasks. Specifically, all these models utilize Loss Masking on the input speech tokens for the ASR task, which means that these models do not explicitly model the dependency between the speech tokens. In this paper, we attempt to model the sequence of speech tokens in an autoregressive manner like text. However, we find that applying the conventional cross-entropy loss on input speech tokens does not consistently improve the ASR performance over Loss Masking. Therefore, we propose a novel approach denoted Smoothed Label Distillation (SLD), which introduces a KL divergence loss with smoothed labels on the input speech tokens to effectively model speech tokens. Experiments demonstrate that our SLD approach alleviates the limitations of the cross-entropy loss and consistently outperforms Loss Masking for decoder-only Transformer based ASR using different speech discretization methods.
This paper introduces a multifaceted methodology for fine-tuning and evaluating large language models (LLMs) for specialized monetization tasks. The goal is to balance general language proficiency with domain-specific skills. The methodology has three main components: 1) Carefully blending in-domain and general-purpose data during fine-tuning to achieve an optimal balance between general and specialized capabilities; 2) Designing a comprehensive evaluation framework with 45 questions tailored to assess performance on functionally relevant dimensions like reliability, consistency, and business impact; 3) Analyzing how model size and continual training influence metrics to guide efficient resource allocation during fine-tuning. The paper details the design, data collection, analytical techniques, and results validating the proposed frameworks. It aims to provide businesses and researchers with actionable insights on effectively adapting LLMs for specialized contexts. We also intend to make public the comprehensive evaluation framework, which includes the 45 tailored questions and their respective scoring guidelines, to foster transparency and collaboration in adapting LLMs for specialized tasks.
Dual-path is a popular architecture for speech separation models (e.g. Sepformer) which splits long sequences into overlapping chunks for its intra- and inter-blocks that separately model intra-chunk local features and inter-chunk global relationships. However, it has been found that inter-blocks, which comprise half a dual-path model's parameters, contribute minimally to performance. Thus, we propose the Single-Path Global Modulation (SPGM) block to replace inter-blocks. SPGM is named after its structure consisting of a parameter-free global pooling module followed by a modulation module comprising only 2% of the model's total parameters. The SPGM block allows all transformer layers in the model to be dedicated to local feature modelling, making the overall model single-path. SPGM achieves 22.1 dB SI-SDRi on WSJ0-2Mix and 20.4 dB SI-SDRi on Libri2Mix, exceeding the performance of Sepformer by 0.5 dB and 0.3 dB respectively and matches the performance of recent SOTA models with up to 8 times fewer parameters.
Large self-supervised pre-trained speech models require computationally expensive fine-tuning for downstream tasks. Soft prompt tuning offers a simple parameter-efficient alternative by utilizing minimal soft prompt guidance, enhancing portability while also maintaining competitive performance. However, not many people understand how and why this is so. In this study, we aim to deepen our understanding of this emerging method by investigating the role of soft prompts in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Our findings highlight their role as zero-shot learners in improving ASR performance but also make them vulnerable to malicious modifications. Soft prompts aid generalization but are not obligatory for inference. We also identify two primary roles of soft prompts: content refinement and noise information enhancement, which enhances robustness against background noise. Additionally, we propose an effective modification on noise prompts to show that they are capable of zero-shot learning on adapting to out-of-distribution noise environments.
In this paper, we propose ACA-Net, a lightweight, global context-aware speaker embedding extractor for Speaker Verification (SV) that improves upon existing work by using Asymmetric Cross Attention (ACA) to replace temporal pooling. ACA is able to distill large, variable-length sequences into small, fixed-sized latents by attending a small query to large key and value matrices. In ACA-Net, we build a Multi-Layer Aggregation (MLA) block using ACA to generate fixed-sized identity vectors from variable-length inputs. Through global attention, ACA-Net acts as an efficient global feature extractor that adapts to temporal variability unlike existing SV models that apply a fixed function for pooling over the temporal dimension which may obscure information about the signal's non-stationary temporal variability. Our experiments on the WSJ0-1talker show ACA-Net outperforms a strong baseline by 5\% relative improvement in EER using only 1/5 of the parameters.
Prior studies diagnose the anisotropy problem in sentence representations from pre-trained language models, e.g., BERT, without fine-tuning. Our analysis reveals that the sentence embeddings from BERT suffer from a bias towards uninformative words, limiting the performance in semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks. To address this bias, we propose a simple and efficient unsupervised approach, Diagonal Attention Pooling (Ditto), which weights words with model-based importance estimations and computes the weighted average of word representations from pre-trained models as sentence embeddings. Ditto can be easily applied to any pre-trained language model as a postprocessing operation. Compared to prior sentence embedding approaches, Ditto does not add parameters nor requires any learning. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that our proposed Ditto can alleviate the anisotropy problem and improve various pre-trained models on STS tasks.
Most of the existing neural-based models for keyword spotting (KWS) in smart devices require thousands of training samples to learn a decent audio representation. However, with the rising demand for smart devices to become more personalized, KWS models need to adapt quickly to smaller user samples. To tackle this challenge, we propose a contrastive speech mixup (CosMix) learning algorithm for low-resource KWS. CosMix introduces an auxiliary contrastive loss to the existing mixup augmentation technique to maximize the relative similarity between the original pre-mixed samples and the augmented samples. The goal is to inject enhancing constraints to guide the model towards simpler but richer content-based speech representations from two augmented views (i.e. noisy mixed and clean pre-mixed utterances). We conduct our experiments on the Google Speech Command dataset, where we trim the size of the training set to as small as 2.5 mins per keyword to simulate a low-resource condition. Our experimental results show a consistent improvement in the performance of multiple models, which exhibits the effectiveness of our method.
Learning on a massive amount of speech corpus leads to the recent success of many self-supervised speech models. With knowledge distillation, these models may also benefit from the knowledge encoded by language models that are pre-trained on rich sources of texts. The distillation process, however, is challenging due to the modal disparity between textual and speech embedding spaces. This paper studies metric-based distillation to align the embedding space of text and speech with only a small amount of data without modifying the model structure. Since the semantic and granularity gap between text and speech has been omitted in literature, which impairs the distillation, we propose the Prior-informed Adaptive knowledge Distillation (PAD) that adaptively leverages text/speech units of variable granularity and prior distributions to achieve better global and local alignments between text and speech pre-trained models. We evaluate on three spoken language understanding benchmarks to show that PAD is more effective in transferring linguistic knowledge than other metric-based distillation approaches.