Large language models (LLMs) have been widely used as agents to complete different tasks, such as personal assistance or event planning. While most work has focused on cooperation and collaboration between agents, little work explores competition, another important mechanism that fosters the development of society and economy. In this paper, we seek to examine the competition behaviors in LLM-based agents. We first propose a general framework to study the competition between agents. Then, we implement a practical competitive environment using GPT-4 to simulate a virtual town with two types of agents, including restaurant agents and customer agents. Specifically, restaurant agents compete with each other to attract more customers, where the competition fosters them to transform, such as cultivating new operating strategies. The results of our experiments reveal several interesting findings ranging from social learning to Matthew Effect, which aligns well with existing sociological and economic theories. We believe that competition between agents deserves further investigation to help us understand society better. The code will be released soon.
Large language models (LLMs) are transforming the ways the general public accesses and consumes information. Their influence is particularly pronounced in pivotal sectors like healthcare, where lay individuals are increasingly appropriating LLMs as conversational agents for everyday queries. While LLMs demonstrate impressive language understanding and generation proficiencies, concerns regarding their safety remain paramount in these high-stake domains. Moreover, the development of LLMs is disproportionately focused on English. It remains unclear how these LLMs perform in the context of non-English languages, a gap that is critical for ensuring equity in the real-world use of these systems.This paper provides a framework to investigate the effectiveness of LLMs as multi-lingual dialogue systems for healthcare queries. Our empirically-derived framework XlingEval focuses on three fundamental criteria for evaluating LLM responses to naturalistic human-authored health-related questions: correctness, consistency, and verifiability. Through extensive experiments on four major global languages, including English, Spanish, Chinese, and Hindi, spanning three expert-annotated large health Q&A datasets, and through an amalgamation of algorithmic and human-evaluation strategies, we found a pronounced disparity in LLM responses across these languages, indicating a need for enhanced cross-lingual capabilities. We further propose XlingHealth, a cross-lingual benchmark for examining the multilingual capabilities of LLMs in the healthcare context. Our findings underscore the pressing need to bolster the cross-lingual capacities of these models, and to provide an equitable information ecosystem accessible to all.
The proliferation of Large Language Models (LLMs) has driven considerable interest in fine-tuning them with domain-specific data to create specialized language models. Nevertheless, such domain-specific fine-tuning data often contains sensitive personally identifiable information (PII). Direct fine-tuning LLMs on this data without privacy protection poses a risk of leakage. To address this challenge, we introduce Privacy Protection Language Models (PPLM), a novel paradigm for fine-tuning LLMs that effectively injects domain-specific knowledge while safeguarding data privacy. Our work offers a theoretical analysis for model design and delves into various techniques such as corpus curation, penalty-based unlikelihood in training loss, and instruction-based tuning, etc. Extensive experiments across diverse datasets and scenarios demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches. In particular, instruction tuning with both positive and negative examples, stands out as a promising method, effectively protecting private data while enhancing the model's knowledge. Our work underscores the potential for Large Language Models as robust privacy protection learners.
In reinforcement learning (RL), there are two major settings for interacting with the environment: online and offline. Online methods explore the environment at significant time cost, and offline methods efficiently obtain reward signals by sacrificing exploration capability. We propose semi-offline RL, a novel paradigm that smoothly transits from offline to online settings, balances exploration capability and training cost, and provides a theoretical foundation for comparing different RL settings. Based on the semi-offline formulation, we present the RL setting that is optimal in terms of optimization cost, asymptotic error, and overfitting error bound. Extensive experiments show that our semi-offline approach is efficient and yields comparable or often better performance compared with state-of-the-art methods.
* In Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine
Learning (ICML 2023)
In this paper, we move towards combining large parametric models with non-parametric prototypical networks. We propose prototypical fine-tuning, a novel prototypical framework for fine-tuning pretrained language models (LM), which automatically learns a bias to improve predictive performance for varying data sizes, especially low-resource settings. Our prototypical fine-tuning approach can automatically adjust the model capacity according to the number of data points and the model's inherent attributes. Moreover, we propose four principles for effective prototype fine-tuning towards the optimal solution. Experimental results across various datasets show that our work achieves significant performance improvements under various low-resource settings, as well as comparable and usually better performances in high-resource scenarios.
Open Source Software (OSS) is forming the spines of technology infrastructures, attracting millions of talents to contribute. Notably, it is challenging and critical to consider both the developers' interests and the semantic features of the project code to recommend appropriate development tasks to OSS developers. In this paper, we formulate the novel problem of code recommendation, whose purpose is to predict the future contribution behaviors of developers given their interaction history, the semantic features of source code, and the hierarchical file structures of projects. Considering the complex interactions among multiple parties within the system, we propose CODER, a novel graph-based code recommendation framework for open source software developers. CODER jointly models microscopic user-code interactions and macroscopic user-project interactions via a heterogeneous graph and further bridges the two levels of information through aggregation on file-structure graphs that reflect the project hierarchy. Moreover, due to the lack of reliable benchmarks, we construct three large-scale datasets to facilitate future research in this direction. Extensive experiments show that our CODER framework achieves superior performance under various experimental settings, including intra-project, cross-project, and cold-start recommendation. We will release all the datasets, code, and utilities for data retrieval upon the acceptance of this work.