Image-to-image translation (I2I), and particularly its subfield of appearance transfer, which seeks to alter the visual appearance between images while maintaining structural coherence, presents formidable challenges. Despite significant advancements brought by diffusion models, achieving fine-grained transfer remains complex, particularly in terms of retaining detailed structural elements and ensuring information fidelity. This paper proposes an innovative framework designed to surmount these challenges by integrating various aspects of semantic matching, appearance transfer, and latent deviation. A pivotal aspect of our approach is the strategic use of the predicted $x_0$ space by diffusion models within the latent space of diffusion processes. This is identified as a crucial element for the precise and natural transfer of fine-grained details. Our framework exploits this space to accomplish semantic alignment between source and target images, facilitating mask-wise appearance transfer for improved feature acquisition. A significant advancement of our method is the seamless integration of these features into the latent space, enabling more nuanced latent deviations without necessitating extensive model retraining or fine-tuning. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through extensive experiments, which showcase its ability to adeptly handle fine-grained appearance transfers across a wide range of categories and domains. We provide our code at https://github.com/babahui/Fine-grained-Appearance-Transfer
Generalizable NeRF can directly synthesize novel views across new scenes, eliminating the need for scene-specific retraining in vanilla NeRF. A critical enabling factor in these approaches is the extraction of a generalizable 3D representation by aggregating source-view features. In this paper, we propose an Entangled View-Epipolar Information Aggregation method dubbed EVE-NeRF. Different from existing methods that consider cross-view and along-epipolar information independently, EVE-NeRF conducts the view-epipolar feature aggregation in an entangled manner by injecting the scene-invariant appearance continuity and geometry consistency priors to the aggregation process. Our approach effectively mitigates the potential lack of inherent geometric and appearance constraint resulting from one-dimensional interactions, thus further boosting the 3D representation generalizablity. EVE-NeRF attains state-of-the-art performance across various evaluation scenarios. Extensive experiments demonstate that, compared to prevailing single-dimensional aggregation, the entangled network excels in the accuracy of 3D scene geometry and appearance reconstruction.Our project page is https://github.com/tatakai1/EVENeRF.
Video-based scene graph generation (VidSGG) is an approach that aims to represent video content in a dynamic graph by identifying visual entities and their relationships. Due to the inherently biased distribution and missing annotations in the training data, current VidSGG methods have been found to perform poorly on less-represented predicates. In this paper, we propose an explicit solution to address this under-explored issue by supplementing missing predicates that should be appear in the ground-truth annotations. Dubbed Trico, our method seeks to supplement the missing predicates by exploring three complementary spatio-temporal correlations. Guided by these correlations, the missing labels can be effectively supplemented thus achieving an unbiased predicate predictions. We validate the effectiveness of Trico on the most widely used VidSGG datasets, i.e., VidVRD and VidOR. Extensive experiments demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance achieved by Trico, particularly on those tail predicates.
This work addresses the challenging domain adaptation setting in which knowledge from the labelled source domain dataset is available only from the pretrained black-box segmentation model. The pretrained model's predictions for the target domain images are noisy because of the distributional differences between the source domain data and the target domain data. Since the model's predictions serve as pseudo labels during self-training, the noise in the predictions impose an upper bound on model performance. Therefore, we propose a simple yet novel image translation workflow, ReGEN, to address this problem. ReGEN comprises an image-to-image translation network and a segmentation network. Our workflow generates target-like images using the noisy predictions from the original target domain images. These target-like images are semantically consistent with the noisy model predictions and therefore can be used to train the segmentation network. In addition to being semantically consistent with the predictions from the original target domain images, the generated target-like images are also stylistically similar to the target domain images. This allows us to leverage the stylistic differences between the target-like images and the target domain image as an additional source of supervision while training the segmentation model. We evaluate our model with two benchmark domain adaptation settings and demonstrate that our approach performs favourably relative to recent state-of-the-art work. The source code will be made available.
In this paper, we focus on an under-explored issue of biased activation in prior weakly-supervised object localization methods based on Class Activation Mapping (CAM). We analyze the cause of this problem from a causal view and attribute it to the co-occurring background confounders. Following this insight, we propose a novel Counterfactual Co-occurring Learning (CCL) paradigm to synthesize the counterfactual representations via coupling constant foreground and unrealized backgrounds in order to cut off their co-occurring relationship. Specifically, we design a new network structure called Counterfactual-CAM, which embeds the counterfactual representation perturbation mechanism into the vanilla CAM-based model. This mechanism is responsible for decoupling foreground as well as background and synthesizing the counterfactual representations. By training the detection model with these synthesized representations, we compel the model to focus on the constant foreground content while minimizing the influence of distracting co-occurring background. To our best knowledge, it is the first attempt in this direction. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate that Counterfactual-CAM successfully mitigates the biased activation problem, achieving improved object localization accuracy.
Current video-based scene graph generation (VidSGG) methods have been found to perform poorly on predicting predicates that are less represented due to the inherent biased distribution in the training data. In this paper, we take a closer look at the predicates and identify that most visual relations (e.g. sit_above) involve both actional pattern (sit) and spatial pattern (above), while the distribution bias is much less severe at the pattern level. Based on this insight, we propose a decoupled label learning (DLL) paradigm to address the intractable visual relation prediction from the pattern-level perspective. Specifically, DLL decouples the predicate labels and adopts separate classifiers to learn actional and spatial patterns respectively. The patterns are then combined and mapped back to the predicate. Moreover, we propose a knowledge-level label decoupling method to transfer non-target knowledge from head predicates to tail predicates within the same pattern to calibrate the distribution of tail classes. We validate the effectiveness of DLL on the commonly used VidSGG benchmark, i.e. VidVRD. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the DLL offers a remarkably simple but highly effective solution to the long-tailed problem, achieving the state-of-the-art VidSGG performance.
Weakly-supervised object localization aims to indicate the category as well as the scope of an object in an image given only the image-level labels. Most of the existing works are based on Class Activation Mapping (CAM) and endeavor to enlarge the discriminative area inside the activation map to perceive the whole object, yet ignore the co-occurrence confounder of the object and context (e.g., fish and water), which makes the model inspection hard to distinguish object boundaries. Besides, the use of CAM also brings a dilemma problem that the classification and localization always suffer from a performance gap and can not reach their highest accuracy simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a casual knowledge distillation method, dubbed KD-CI-CAM, to address these two under-explored issues in one go. More specifically, we tackle the co-occurrence context confounder problem via causal intervention (CI), which explores the causalities among image features, contexts, and categories to eliminate the biased object-context entanglement in the class activation maps. Based on the de-biased object feature, we additionally propose a multi-teacher causal distillation framework to balance the absorption of classification knowledge and localization knowledge during model training. Extensive experiments on several benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of KD-CI-CAM in learning clear object boundaries from confounding contexts and addressing the dilemma problem between classification and localization performance.
* 16 pages, 6 figures, 5 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text
overlap with arXiv:2104.10351
A thriving trend for domain adaptive segmentation endeavors to generate the high-quality pseudo labels for target domain and retrain the segmentor on them. Under this self-training paradigm, some competitive methods have sought to the latent-space information, which establishes the feature centroids (a.k.a prototypes) of the semantic classes and determines the pseudo label candidates by their distances from these centroids. In this paper, we argue that the latent space contains more information to be exploited thus taking one step further to capitalize on it. Firstly, instead of merely using the source-domain prototypes to determine the target pseudo labels as most of the traditional methods do, we bidirectionally produce the target-domain prototypes to degrade those source features which might be too hard or disturbed for the adaptation. Secondly, existing attempts simply model each category as a single and isotropic prototype while ignoring the variance of the feature distribution, which could lead to the confusion of similar categories. To cope with this issue, we propose to represent each category with multiple and anisotropic prototypes via Gaussian Mixture Model, in order to fit the de facto distribution of source domain and estimate the likelihood of target samples based on the probability density. We apply our method on GTA5->Cityscapes and Synthia->Cityscapes tasks and achieve 61.2 and 62.8 respectively in terms of mean IoU, substantially outperforming other competitive self-training methods. Noticeably, in some categories which severely suffer from the categorical confusion such as "truck" and "bus", our method achieves 56.4 and 68.8 respectively, which further demonstrates the effectiveness of our design.
We explore the task of language-guided video segmentation (LVS). Previous algorithms mostly adopt 3D CNNs to learn video representation, struggling to capture long-term context and easily suffering from visual-linguistic misalignment. In light of this, we present Locater (local-global context aware Transformer), which augments the Transformer architecture with a finite memory so as to query the entire video with the language expression in an efficient manner. The memory is designed to involve two components -- one for persistently preserving global video content, and one for dynamically gathering local temporal context and segmentation history. Based on the memorized local-global context and the particular content of each frame, Locater holistically and flexibly comprehends the expression as an adaptive query vector for each frame. The vector is used to query the corresponding frame for mask generation. The memory also allows Locater to process videos with linear time complexity and constant size memory, while Transformer-style self-attention computation scales quadratically with sequence length. To thoroughly examine the visual grounding capability of LVS models, we contribute a new LVS dataset, A2D-S+, which is built upon A2D-S dataset but poses increased challenges in disambiguating among similar objects. Experiments on three LVS datasets and our A2D-S+ show that Locater outperforms previous state-of-the-arts. Further, our Locater based solution achieved the 1st place in the Referring Video Object Segmentation Track of the 3rd Large-scale Video Object Segmentation Challenge. Our code and dataset are available at: https://github.com/leonnnop/Locater
The expensive annotation cost is notoriously known as a main constraint for the development of the point cloud semantic segmentation technique. In this paper, we propose a novel active learning-based method to tackle this problem. Dubbed SSDR-AL, our method groups the original point clouds into superpoints and selects the most informative and representative ones for label acquisition. We achieve the selection mechanism via a graph reasoning network that considers both the spatial and structural diversity of the superpoints. To deploy SSDR-AL in a more practical scenario, we design a noise aware iterative labeling scheme to confront the "noisy annotation" problem introduced by previous dominant labeling methods in superpoints. Extensive experiments on two point cloud benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of SSDR-AL in the semantic segmentation task. Particularly, SSDR-AL significantly outperforms the baseline method when the labeled sets are small, where SSDR-AL requires only $5.7\%$ and $1.9\%$ annotation costs to achieve the performance of $90\%$ fully supervised learning on S3DIS and Semantic3D datasets, respectively.