Split learning (SL) has emerged as a promising approach for model training without revealing the raw data samples from the data owners. However, traditional SL inevitably leaks label privacy as the tail model (with the last layers) should be placed on the server. To overcome this limitation, one promising solution is to utilize U-shaped architecture to leave both early layers and last layers on the user side. In this paper, we develop a novel parallel U-shaped split learning and devise the optimal resource optimization scheme to improve the performance of edge networks. In the proposed framework, multiple users communicate with an edge server for SL. We analyze the end-to-end delay of each client during the training process and design an efficient resource allocation algorithm, called LSCRA, which finds the optimal computing resource allocation and split layers. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of LSCRA and that U-shaped PSL can achieve a similar performance with other SL baselines while preserving label privacy. Index Terms: U-shaped network, split learning, label privacy, resource allocation, 5G/6G edge networks.
With the proliferation of distributed edge computing resources, the 6G mobile network will evolve into a network for connected intelligence. Along this line, the proposal to incorporate federated learning into the mobile edge has gained considerable interest in recent years. However, the deployment of federated learning faces substantial challenges as massive resource-limited IoT devices can hardly support on-device model training. This leads to the emergence of split learning (SL) which enables servers to handle the major training workload while still enhancing data privacy. In this article, we offer a brief overview of key advancements in SL and articulate its seamless integration with wireless edge networks. We begin by illustrating the tailored 6G architecture to support edge SL. Then, we examine the critical design issues for edge SL, including innovative resource-efficient learning frameworks and resource management strategies under a single edge server. Additionally, we expand the scope to multi-edge scenarios, exploring multi-edge collaboration and mobility management from a networking perspective. Finally, we discuss open problems for edge SL, including convergence analysis, asynchronous SL and U-shaped SL.
The increasingly deeper neural networks hinder the democratization of privacy-enhancing distributed learning, such as federated learning (FL), to resource-constrained devices. To overcome this challenge, in this paper, we advocate the integration of edge computing paradigm and parallel split learning (PSL), allowing multiple client devices to offload substantial training workloads to an edge server via layer-wise model split. By observing that existing PSL schemes incur excessive training latency and large volume of data transmissions, we propose an innovative PSL framework, namely, efficient parallel split learning (EPSL), to accelerate model training. To be specific, EPSL parallelizes client-side model training and reduces the dimension of local gradients for back propagation (BP) via last-layer gradient aggregation, leading to a significant reduction in server-side training and communication latency. Moreover, by considering the heterogeneous channel conditions and computing capabilities at client devices, we jointly optimize subchannel allocation, power control, and cut layer selection to minimize the per-round latency. Simulation results show that the proposed EPSL framework significantly decreases the training latency needed to achieve a target accuracy compared with the state-of-the-art benchmarks, and the tailored resource management and layer split strategy can considerably reduce latency than the counterpart without optimization.
Given the rapidly changing machine learning environments and expensive data labeling, semi-supervised domain adaptation (SSDA) is imperative when the labeled data from the source domain is statistically different from the partially labeled data from the target domain. Most prior SSDA research is centrally performed, requiring access to both source and target data. However, data in many fields nowadays is generated by distributed end devices. Due to privacy concerns, the data might be locally stored and cannot be shared, resulting in the ineffectiveness of existing SSDA research. This paper proposes an innovative approach to achieve SSDA over multiple distributed and confidential datasets, named by Federated Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation (FSSDA). FSSDA integrates SSDA with federated learning based on strategically designed knowledge distillation techniques, whose efficiency is improved by performing source and target training in parallel. Moreover, FSSDA controls the amount of knowledge transferred across domains by properly selecting a key parameter, i.e., the imitation parameter. Further, the proposed FSSDA can be effectively generalized to multi-source domain adaptation scenarios. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of FSSDA design.
Multi-access edge computing (MEC) is an emerging paradigm that pushes resources for sensing, communications, computing, storage and intelligence (SCCSI) to the premises closer to the end users, i.e., the edge, so that they could leverage the nearby rich resources to improve their quality of experience (QoE). Due to the growing emerging applications targeting at intelligentizing life-sustaining cyber-physical systems, this paradigm has become a hot research topic, particularly when MEC is utilized to provide edge intelligence and real-time processing and control. This article is to elaborate the research issues along this line, including basic concepts and performance metrics, killer applications, architectural design, modeling approaches and solutions, and future research directions. It is hoped that this article provides a quick introduction to this fruitful research area particularly for beginning researchers.