Large language models (LLMs), which have shown remarkable capabilities, are revolutionizing AI development and potentially shaping our future. However, given their multimodality, the status quo cloud-based deployment faces some critical challenges: 1) long response time; 2) high bandwidth costs; and 3) the violation of data privacy. 6G mobile edge computing (MEC) systems may resolve these pressing issues. In this article, we explore the potential of deploying LLMs at the 6G edge. We start by introducing killer applications powered by multimodal LLMs, including robotics and healthcare, to highlight the need for deploying LLMs in the vicinity of end users. Then, we identify the critical challenges for LLM deployment at the edge and envision the 6G MEC architecture for LLMs. Furthermore, we delve into two design aspects, i.e., edge training and edge inference for LLMs. In both aspects, considering the inherent resource limitations at the edge, we discuss various cutting-edge techniques, including split learning/inference, parameter-efficient fine-tuning, quantization, and parameter-sharing inference, to facilitate the efficient deployment of LLMs. This article serves as a position paper for thoroughly identifying the motivation, challenges, and pathway for empowering LLMs at the 6G edge.
Split learning (SL) has emerged as a promising approach for model training without revealing the raw data samples from the data owners. However, traditional SL inevitably leaks label privacy as the tail model (with the last layers) should be placed on the server. To overcome this limitation, one promising solution is to utilize U-shaped architecture to leave both early layers and last layers on the user side. In this paper, we develop a novel parallel U-shaped split learning and devise the optimal resource optimization scheme to improve the performance of edge networks. In the proposed framework, multiple users communicate with an edge server for SL. We analyze the end-to-end delay of each client during the training process and design an efficient resource allocation algorithm, called LSCRA, which finds the optimal computing resource allocation and split layers. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of LSCRA and that U-shaped PSL can achieve a similar performance with other SL baselines while preserving label privacy. Index Terms: U-shaped network, split learning, label privacy, resource allocation, 5G/6G edge networks.
With the proliferation of distributed edge computing resources, the 6G mobile network will evolve into a network for connected intelligence. Along this line, the proposal to incorporate federated learning into the mobile edge has gained considerable interest in recent years. However, the deployment of federated learning faces substantial challenges as massive resource-limited IoT devices can hardly support on-device model training. This leads to the emergence of split learning (SL) which enables servers to handle the major training workload while still enhancing data privacy. In this article, we offer a brief overview of key advancements in SL and articulate its seamless integration with wireless edge networks. We begin by illustrating the tailored 6G architecture to support edge SL. Then, we examine the critical design issues for edge SL, including innovative resource-efficient learning frameworks and resource management strategies under a single edge server. Additionally, we expand the scope to multi-edge scenarios, exploring multi-edge collaboration and mobility management from a networking perspective. Finally, we discuss open problems for edge SL, including convergence analysis, asynchronous SL and U-shaped SL.