In-context learning (ICL, also known as few-shot prompting) has been the standard method of adapting LLMs to downstream tasks, by learning from a few input-output examples. Nonetheless, all ICL-based approaches only learn from correct input-output pairs. In this paper, we revisit this paradigm, by learning more from the few given input-output examples. We introduce Learning Principles (LEAP): First, we intentionally induce the model to make mistakes on these few examples; then we reflect on these mistakes, and learn explicit task-specific "principles" from them, which help solve similar problems and avoid common mistakes; finally, we prompt the model to answer unseen test questions using the original few-shot examples and these learned general principles. We evaluate LEAP on a wide range of benchmarks, including multi-hop question answering (Hotpot QA), textual QA (DROP), Big-Bench Hard reasoning, and math problems (GSM8K and MATH); in all these benchmarks, LEAP improves the strongest available LLMs such as GPT-3.5-turbo, GPT-4, GPT-4 turbo and Claude-2.1. For example, LEAP improves over the standard few-shot prompting using GPT-4 by 7.5% in DROP, and by 3.3% in HotpotQA. Importantly, LEAP does not require any more input or examples than the standard few-shot prompting settings.
Diffusion models have shown impressive performance in many domains, including image generation, time series prediction, and reinforcement learning. The algorithm demonstrates superior performance over the traditional GAN and transformer based methods. However, the model's capability to follow natural language instructions (e.g., spatial relationships between objects, generating complex scenes) is still unsatisfactory. This has been an important research area to enhance such capability. Prior works adopt reinforcement learning to adjust the behavior of the diffusion models. However, RL methods not only require careful reward design and complex hyperparameter tuning, but also fails to incorporate rich natural language feedback. In this work, we propose iterative prompt relabeling (IP-RLDF), a novel algorithm that aligns images to text through iterative image sampling and prompt relabeling. IP-RLDF first samples a batch of images conditioned on the text, then relabels the text prompts of unmatched text-image pairs with classifier feedback. We conduct thorough experiments on three different models, including SDv2, GLIGEN, and SDXL, testing their capability to generate images following instructions. With IP-RLDF, we improved up to 15.22% (absolute improvement) on the challenging spatial relation VISOR benchmark, demonstrating superior performance compared to previous RL methods.
Natural language to code generation is an important application area of LLMs and has received wide attention from the community. The majority of relevant studies have exclusively concentrated on increasing the quantity and functional correctness of training sets while disregarding other stylistic elements of programs. More recently, data quality has garnered a lot of interest and multiple works have showcased its importance for improving performance. In this work, we investigate data quality for code and find that making the code more structured and readable leads to improved code generation performance of the system. We build a novel data-cleaning pipeline that uses these principles to transform existing programs by 1.) renaming variables, 2.) modularizing and decomposing complex code into smaller helper sub-functions, and 3.) inserting natural-language based plans via LLM based transformations. We evaluate our approach on two challenging algorithmic code generation benchmarks and find that fine-tuning CodeLLaMa-7B on our transformed modularized programs improves the performance by up to 30% compared to fine-tuning on the original dataset. Additionally, we demonstrate improved performance from using a smaller amount of higher-quality data, finding that a model fine-tuned on the entire original dataset is outperformed by a model trained on 15% of our cleaned dataset. Even in comparison to closed-source models, our models outperform the much larger AlphaCoder models.
Large Language Models (LLMs) are becoming increasingly smart and autonomous, targeting real-world pragmatic missions beyond traditional NLP tasks. As a result, there has been an urgent need to evaluate LLMs as agents on challenging tasks in interactive environments. We present AgentBench, a multi-dimensional evolving benchmark that currently consists of 8 distinct environments to assess LLM-as-Agent's reasoning and decision-making abilities in a multi-turn open-ended generation setting. Our extensive test over 25 LLMs (including APIs and open-sourced models) shows that, while top commercial LLMs present a strong ability of acting as agents in complex environments, there is a significant disparity in performance between them and open-sourced competitors. It also serves as a component of an ongoing project with wider coverage and deeper consideration towards systematic LLM evaluation. Datasets, environments, and an integrated evaluation package for AgentBench are released at https://github.com/THUDM/AgentBench
Current text-to-image generation models often struggle to follow textual instructions, especially the ones requiring spatial reasoning. On the other hand, Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT-4, have shown remarkable precision in generating code snippets for sketching out text inputs graphically, e.g., via TikZ. In this work, we introduce Control-GPT to guide the diffusion-based text-to-image pipelines with programmatic sketches generated by GPT-4, enhancing their abilities for instruction following. Control-GPT works by querying GPT-4 to write TikZ code, and the generated sketches are used as references alongside the text instructions for diffusion models (e.g., ControlNet) to generate photo-realistic images. One major challenge to training our pipeline is the lack of a dataset containing aligned text, images, and sketches. We address the issue by converting instance masks in existing datasets into polygons to mimic the sketches used at test time. As a result, Control-GPT greatly boosts the controllability of image generation. It establishes a new state-of-art on the spatial arrangement and object positioning generation and enhances users' control of object positions, sizes, etc., nearly doubling the accuracy of prior models. Our work, as a first attempt, shows the potential for employing LLMs to enhance the performance in computer vision tasks.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have seen an impressive wave of advances recently, with models now excelling in a variety of tasks, such as mathematical reasoning and program synthesis. However, their potential to effectively use tools via API calls remains unfulfilled. This is a challenging task even for today's state-of-the-art LLMs such as GPT-4, largely due to their inability to generate accurate input arguments and their tendency to hallucinate the wrong usage of an API call. We release Gorilla, a finetuned LLaMA-based model that surpasses the performance of GPT-4 on writing API calls. When combined with a document retriever, Gorilla demonstrates a strong capability to adapt to test-time document changes, enabling flexible user updates or version changes. It also substantially mitigates the issue of hallucination, commonly encountered when prompting LLMs directly. To evaluate the model's ability, we introduce APIBench, a comprehensive dataset consisting of HuggingFace, TorchHub, and TensorHub APIs. The successful integration of the retrieval system with Gorilla demonstrates the potential for LLMs to use tools more accurately, keep up with frequently updated documentation, and consequently increase the reliability and applicability of their outputs. Gorilla's code, model, data, and demo are available at https://gorilla.cs.berkeley.edu
Reinforcement learning has seen wide success in finetuning large language models to better align with instructions via human feedback. The so-called algorithm, Reinforcement Learning with Human Feedback (RLHF) demonstrates impressive performance on the GPT series models. However, the underlying Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm is complex and requires an additional training pipeline for reward and value networks. In this paper, we consider an alternative approach: converting feedback to instruction by relabeling the original one and training the model for better alignment in a supervised manner. Such an algorithm doesn't require any additional parameters except for the original language model and maximally reuses the pretraining pipeline. To achieve this, we formulate instruction alignment problem for language models as a goal-reaching problem in decision making. We propose Hindsight Instruction Relabeling (HIR), a novel algorithm for aligning language models with instructions. The resulting two-stage algorithm shed light to a family of reward-free approaches that utilize the hindsightly relabeled instructions based on feedback. We evaluate the performance of HIR extensively on 12 challenging BigBench reasoning tasks and show that HIR outperforms the baseline algorithms and is comparable to or even surpasses supervised finetuning.
Deep latent variable models have achieved significant empirical successes in model-based reinforcement learning (RL) due to their expressiveness in modeling complex transition dynamics. On the other hand, it remains unclear theoretically and empirically how latent variable models may facilitate learning, planning, and exploration to improve the sample efficiency of RL. In this paper, we provide a representation view of the latent variable models for state-action value functions, which allows both tractable variational learning algorithm and effective implementation of the optimism/pessimism principle in the face of uncertainty for exploration. In particular, we propose a computationally efficient planning algorithm with UCB exploration by incorporating kernel embeddings of latent variable models. Theoretically, we establish the sample complexity of the proposed approach in the online and offline settings. Empirically, we demonstrate superior performance over current state-of-the-art algorithms across various benchmarks.
Prompt Tuning, conditioning on task-specific learned prompt vectors, has emerged as a data-efficient and parameter-efficient method for adapting large pretrained vision-language models to multiple downstream tasks. However, existing approaches usually consider learning prompt vectors for each task independently from scratch, thereby failing to exploit the rich shareable knowledge across different vision-language tasks. In this paper, we propose multitask vision-language prompt tuning (MVLPT), which incorporates cross-task knowledge into prompt tuning for vision-language models. Specifically, (i) we demonstrate the effectiveness of learning a single transferable prompt from multiple source tasks to initialize the prompt for each target task; (ii) we show many target tasks can benefit each other from sharing prompt vectors and thus can be jointly learned via multitask prompt tuning. We benchmark the proposed MVLPT using three representative prompt tuning methods, namely text prompt tuning, visual prompt tuning, and the unified vision-language prompt tuning. Results in 20 vision tasks demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms all single-task baseline prompt tuning methods, setting the new state-of-the-art on the few-shot ELEVATER benchmarks and cross-task generalization benchmarks. To understand where the cross-task knowledge is most effective, we also conduct a large-scale study on task transferability with 20 vision tasks in 400 combinations for each prompt tuning method. It shows that the most performant MVLPT for each prompt tuning method prefers different task combinations and many tasks can benefit each other, depending on their visual similarity and label similarity. Code is available at https://github.com/sIncerass/MVLPT.