Generalist Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT-4, have shown considerable promise in various domains, including medical diagnosis. Rare diseases, affecting approximately 300 million people worldwide, often have unsatisfactory clinical diagnosis rates primarily due to a lack of experienced physicians and the complexity of differentiating among many rare diseases. In this context, recent news such as "ChatGPT correctly diagnosed a 4-year-old's rare disease after 17 doctors failed" underscore LLMs' potential, yet underexplored, role in clinically diagnosing rare diseases. To bridge this research gap, we introduce RareBench, a pioneering benchmark designed to systematically evaluate the capabilities of LLMs on 4 critical dimensions within the realm of rare diseases. Meanwhile, we have compiled the largest open-source dataset on rare disease patients, establishing a benchmark for future studies in this domain. To facilitate differential diagnosis of rare diseases, we develop a dynamic few-shot prompt methodology, leveraging a comprehensive rare disease knowledge graph synthesized from multiple knowledge bases, significantly enhancing LLMs' diagnostic performance. Moreover, we present an exhaustive comparative study of GPT-4's diagnostic capabilities against those of specialist physicians. Our experimental findings underscore the promising potential of integrating LLMs into the clinical diagnostic process for rare diseases. This paves the way for exciting possibilities in future advancements in this field.
Multimodal depression detection is an important research topic that aims to predict human mental states using multimodal data. Previous methods treat different modalities equally and fuse each modality by na\"ive mathematical operations without measuring the relative importance between them, which cannot obtain well-performed multimodal representations for downstream depression tasks. In order to tackle the aforementioned concern, we present a Cross-modal Attention Network with Adaptive Multi-modal Recurrent Fusion (CANAMRF) for multimodal depression detection. CANAMRF is constructed by a multimodal feature extractor, an Adaptive Multimodal Recurrent Fusion module, and a Hybrid Attention Module. Through experimentation on two benchmark datasets, CANAMRF demonstrates state-of-the-art performance, underscoring the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
* 6 pages, 3 figures. Pacific Rim International Conference on
Artificial Intelligence. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore, 2023
One-shot LiDAR localization refers to the ability to estimate the robot pose from one single point cloud, which yields significant advantages in initialization and relocalization processes. In the point cloud domain, the topic has been extensively studied as a global descriptor retrieval (i.e., loop closure detection) and pose refinement (i.e., point cloud registration) problem both in isolation or combined. However, few have explicitly considered the relationship between candidate retrieval and correspondence generation in pose estimation, leaving them brittle to substructure ambiguities. To this end, we propose a hierarchical one-shot localization algorithm called Outram that leverages substructures of 3D scene graphs for locally consistent correspondence searching and global substructure-wise outlier pruning. Such a hierarchical process couples the feature retrieval and the correspondence extraction to resolve the substructure ambiguities by conducting a local-to-global consistency refinement. We demonstrate the capability of Outram in a variety of scenarios in multiple large-scale outdoor datasets. Our implementation is open-sourced: https://github.com/Pamphlett/Outram.
This paper presents Segregator, a global point cloud registration framework that exploits both semantic information and geometric distribution to efficiently build up outlier-robust correspondences and search for inliers. Current state-of-the-art algorithms rely on point features to set up putative correspondences and refine them by employing pair-wise distance consistency checks. However, such a scheme suffers from degenerate cases, where the descriptive capability of local point features downgrades, and unconstrained cases, where length-preserving (l-TRIMs)-based checks cannot sufficiently constrain whether the current observation is consistent with others, resulting in a complexified NP-complete problem to solve. To tackle these problems, on the one hand, we propose a novel degeneracy-robust and efficient corresponding procedure consisting of both instance-level semantic clusters and geometric-level point features. On the other hand, Gaussian distribution-based translation and rotation invariant measurements (G-TRIMs) are proposed to conduct the consistency check and further constrain the problem size. We validated our proposed algorithm on extensive real-world data-based experiments. The code is available: https://github.com/Pamphlett/Segregator.
Estimating the structure of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) of features (variables) plays a vital role in revealing the latent data generation process and providing causal insights in various applications. Although there have been many studies on structure learning with various types of data, the structure learning on the dynamic graph has not been explored yet, and thus we study the learning problem of node feature generation mechanism on such ubiquitous dynamic graph data. In a dynamic graph, we propose to simultaneously estimate contemporaneous relationships and time-lagged interaction relationships between the node features. These two kinds of relationships form a DAG, which could effectively characterize the feature generation process in a concise way. To learn such a DAG, we cast the learning problem as a continuous score-based optimization problem, which consists of a differentiable score function to measure the validity of the learned DAGs and a smooth acyclicity constraint to ensure the acyclicity of the learned DAGs. These two components are translated into an unconstraint augmented Lagrangian objective which could be minimized by mature continuous optimization techniques. The resulting algorithm, named GraphNOTEARS, outperforms baselines on simulated data across a wide range of settings that may encounter in real-world applications. We also apply the proposed approach on two dynamic graphs constructed from the real-world Yelp dataset, demonstrating our method could learn the connections between node features, which conforms with the domain knowledge.
The segmentation of coronary arteries in X-ray angiograms by convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is promising yet limited by the requirement of precisely annotating all pixels in a large number of training images, which is extremely labor-intensive especially for complex coronary trees. To alleviate the burden on the annotator, we propose a novel weakly supervised training framework that learns from noisy pseudo labels generated from automatic vessel enhancement, rather than accurate labels obtained by fully manual annotation. A typical self-paced learning scheme is used to make the training process robust against label noise while challenged by the systematic biases in pseudo labels, thus leading to the decreased performance of CNNs at test time. To solve this problem, we propose an annotation-refining self-paced learning framework (AR-SPL) to correct the potential errors using suggestive annotation. An elaborate model-vesselness uncertainty estimation is also proposed to enable the minimal annotation cost for suggestive annotation, based on not only the CNNs in training but also the geometric features of coronary arteries derived directly from raw data. Experiments show that our proposed framework achieves 1) comparable accuracy to fully supervised learning, which also significantly outperforms other weakly supervised learning frameworks; 2) largely reduced annotation cost, i.e., 75.18% of annotation time is saved, and only 3.46% of image regions are required to be annotated; and 3) an efficient intervention process, leading to superior performance with even fewer manual interactions.
Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across China. As at the date of writing this article, the disease has been globally reported in 100 countries, infected over 100,000 people and caused over 3,000 deaths. Avoiding person-to-person transmission is an effective approach to control and prevent the epidemic. However, many daily activities, such as logistics transporting goods in our daily life, inevitably involve person-to-person contact. To achieve contact-less goods transportation, using an autonomous logistic vehicle has become the preferred choice. This article presents Hercules, an autonomous logistic vehicle used for contact-less goods transportation during the outbreak of COVID-19. The vehicle is designed with autonomous navigation capability. We provide details on the hardware and software, as well as the algorithms to achieve autonomous navigation including perception, planning and control. This paper is accompanied by a demonstration video and a dataset, which are available here: https://sites.google.com/view/contact-less-transportation.