With the fast growth of parameter size, it becomes increasingly challenging to deploy large generative models as they typically require large GPU memory consumption and massive computation. Unstructured model pruning has been a common approach to reduce both GPU memory footprint and the overall computation while retaining good model accuracy. However, the existing solutions do not provide a highly-efficient support for handling unstructured sparsity on modern GPUs, especially on the highly-structured Tensor Core hardware. Therefore, we propose Flash-LLM for enabling low-cost and highly-efficient large generative model inference with the sophisticated support of unstructured sparsity on high-performance but highly restrictive Tensor Cores. Based on our key observation that the main bottleneck of generative model inference is the several skinny matrix multiplications for which Tensor Cores would be significantly under-utilized due to low computational intensity, we propose a general Load-as-Sparse and Compute-as-Dense methodology for unstructured sparse matrix multiplication. The basic insight is to address the significant memory bandwidth bottleneck while tolerating redundant computations that are not critical for end-to-end performance on Tensor Cores. Based on this, we design an effective software framework for Tensor Core based unstructured SpMM, leveraging on-chip resources for efficient sparse data extraction and computation/memory-access overlapping. At SpMM kernel level, Flash-LLM significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art library, i.e., Sputnik and SparTA by an average of 2.9x and 1.5x, respectively. At end-to-end framework level on OPT-30B/66B/175B models, for tokens per GPU-second, Flash-LLM achieves up to 3.8x and 3.6x improvement over DeepSpeed and FasterTransformer, respectively, with significantly lower inference cost.
Text-to-image generation (TTI) refers to the usage of models that could process text input and generate high fidelity images based on text descriptions. Text-to-image generation using neural networks could be traced back to the emergence of Generative Adversial Network (GAN), followed by the autoregressive Transformer. Diffusion models are one prominent type of generative model used for the generation of images through the systematic introduction of noises with repeating steps. As an effect of the impressive results of diffusion models on image synthesis, it has been cemented as the major image decoder used by text-to-image models and brought text-to-image generation to the forefront of machine-learning (ML) research. In the era of large models, scaling up model size and the integration with large language models have further improved the performance of TTI models, resulting the generation result nearly indistinguishable from real-world images, revolutionizing the way we retrieval images. Our explorative study has incentivised us to think that there are further ways of scaling text-to-image models with the combination of innovative model architectures and prediction enhancement techniques. We have divided the work of this survey into five main sections wherein we detail the frameworks of major literature in order to delve into the different types of text-to-image generation methods. Following this we provide a detailed comparison and critique of these methods and offer possible pathways of improvement for future work. In the future work, we argue that TTI development could yield impressive productivity improvements for creation, particularly in the context of the AIGC era, and could be extended to more complex tasks such as video generation and 3D generation.
ChatGPT-like models have revolutionized various applications in artificial intelligence, from summarization and coding to translation, matching or even surpassing human performance. However, the current landscape lacks an accessible, efficient, and cost-effective end-to-end RLHF (Reinforcement Learning with Human Feedback) training pipeline for these powerful models, particularly when training at the scale of billions of parameters. This paper introduces DeepSpeed-Chat, a novel system that democratizes RLHF training, making it accessible to the AI community. DeepSpeed-Chat offers three key capabilities: an easy-to-use training and inference experience for ChatGPT-like models, a DeepSpeed-RLHF pipeline that replicates the training pipeline from InstructGPT, and a robust DeepSpeed-RLHF system that combines various optimizations for training and inference in a unified way. The system delivers unparalleled efficiency and scalability, enabling training of models with hundreds of billions of parameters in record time and at a fraction of the cost. With this development, DeepSpeed-Chat paves the way for broader access to advanced RLHF training, even for data scientists with limited resources, thereby fostering innovation and further development in the field of AI.
Collaborative filtering (CF) has been proven to be one of the most effective techniques for recommendation. Among all CF approaches, SimpleX is the state-of-the-art method that adopts a novel loss function and a proper number of negative samples. However, there is no work that optimizes SimpleX on multi-core CPUs, leading to limited performance. To this end, we perform an in-depth profiling and analysis of existing SimpleX implementations and identify their performance bottlenecks including (1) irregular memory accesses, (2) unnecessary memory copies, and (3) redundant computations. To address these issues, we propose an efficient CF training system (called HEAT) that fully enables the multi-level caching and multi-threading capabilities of modern CPUs. Specifically, the optimization of HEAT is threefold: (1) It tiles the embedding matrix to increase data locality and reduce cache misses (thus reduces read latency); (2) It optimizes stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with sampling by parallelizing vector products instead of matrix-matrix multiplications, in particular the similarity computation therein, to avoid memory copies for matrix data preparation; and (3) It aggressively reuses intermediate results from the forward phase in the backward phase to alleviate redundant computation. Evaluation on five widely used datasets with both x86- and ARM-architecture processors shows that HEAT achieves up to 45.2X speedup over existing CPU solution and 4.5X speedup and 7.9X cost reduction in Cloud over existing GPU solution with NVIDIA V100 GPU.
This paper is the first to provide a thorough system design overview along with the fusion methods selection criteria of a real-world cooperative autonomous driving system, named Infrastructure-Augmented Autonomous Driving or IAAD. We present an in-depth introduction of the IAAD hardware and software on both road-side and vehicle-side computing and communication platforms. We extensively characterize the IAAD system in the context of real-world deployment scenarios and observe that the network condition that fluctuates along the road is currently the main technical roadblock for cooperative autonomous driving. To address this challenge, we propose new fusion methods, dubbed "inter-frame fusion" and "planning fusion" to complement the current state-of-the-art "intra-frame fusion". We demonstrate that each fusion method has its own benefit and constraint.
Training wide and deep neural networks (DNNs) require large amounts of storage resources such as memory because the intermediate activation data must be saved in the memory during forward propagation and then restored for backward propagation. However, state-of-the-art accelerators such as GPUs are only equipped with very limited memory capacities due to hardware design constraints, which significantly limits the maximum batch size and hence performance speedup when training large-scale DNNs. Traditional memory saving techniques either suffer from performance overhead or are constrained by limited interconnect bandwidth or specific interconnect technology. In this paper, we propose a novel memory-efficient CNN training framework (called COMET) that leverages error-bounded lossy compression to significantly reduce the memory requirement for training, to allow training larger models or to accelerate training. Different from the state-of-the-art solutions that adopt image-based lossy compressors (such as JPEG) to compress the activation data, our framework purposely adopts error-bounded lossy compression with a strict error-controlling mechanism. Specifically, we perform a theoretical analysis on the compression error propagation from the altered activation data to the gradients, and empirically investigate the impact of altered gradients over the training process. Based on these analyses, we optimize the error-bounded lossy compression and propose an adaptive error-bound control scheme for activation data compression. We evaluate our design against state-of-the-art solutions with five widely-adopted CNNs and ImageNet dataset. Experiments demonstrate that our proposed framework can significantly reduce the training memory consumption by up to 13.5X over the baseline training and 1.8X over another state-of-the-art compression-based framework, respectively, with little or no accuracy loss.
Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs) that possess a property of uncertainty estimation have been increasingly adopted in a wide range of safety-critical AI applications which demand reliable and robust decision making, e.g., self-driving, rescue robots, medical image diagnosis. The training procedure of a probabilistic BNN model involves training an ensemble of sampled DNN models, which induces orders of magnitude larger volume of data movement than training a single DNN model. In this paper, we reveal that the root cause for BNN training inefficiency originates from the massive off-chip data transfer by Gaussian Random Variables (GRVs). To tackle this challenge, we propose a novel design that eliminates all the off-chip data transfer by GRVs through the reversed shifting of Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) without incurring any training accuracy loss. To efficiently support our LFSR reversion strategy at the hardware level, we explore the design space of the current DNN accelerators and identify the optimal computation mapping scheme to best accommodate our strategy. By leveraging this finding, we design and prototype the first highly efficient BNN training accelerator, named Shift-BNN, that is low-cost and scalable. Extensive evaluation on five representative BNN models demonstrates that Shift-BNN achieves an average of 4.9x (up to 10.8x) boost in energy efficiency and 1.6x (up to 2.8x) speedup over the baseline DNN training accelerator.
Recent top-$k$ computation efforts explore the possibility of revising various sorting algorithms to answer top-$k$ queries on GPUs. These endeavors, unfortunately, perform significantly more work than needed. This paper introduces Dr. Top-k, a Delegate-centric top-$k$ system on GPUs that can reduce the top-$k$ workloads significantly. Particularly, it contains three major contributions: First, we introduce a comprehensive design of the delegate-centric concept, including maximum delegate, delegate-based filtering, and $\beta$ delegate mechanisms to help reduce the workload for top-$k$ up to more than 99%. Second, due to the difficulty and importance of deriving a proper subrange size, we perform a rigorous theoretical analysis, coupled with thorough experimental validations to identify the desirable subrange size. Third, we introduce four key system optimizations to enable fast multi-GPU top-$k$ computation. Taken together, this work constantly outperforms the state-of-the-art.
The quest for determinism in machine learning has disproportionately focused on characterizing the impact of noise introduced by algorithmic design choices. In this work, we address a less well understood and studied question: how does our choice of tooling introduce randomness to deep neural network training. We conduct large scale experiments across different types of hardware, accelerators, state of art networks, and open-source datasets, to characterize how tooling choices contribute to the level of non-determinism in a system, the impact of said non-determinism, and the cost of eliminating different sources of noise. Our findings are surprising, and suggest that the impact of non-determinism in nuanced. While top-line metrics such as top-1 accuracy are not noticeably impacted, model performance on certain parts of the data distribution is far more sensitive to the introduction of randomness. Our results suggest that deterministic tooling is critical for AI safety. However, we also find that the cost of ensuring determinism varies dramatically between neural network architectures and hardware types, e.g., with overhead up to $746\%$, $241\%$, and $196\%$ on a spectrum of widely used GPU accelerator architectures, relative to non-deterministic training. The source code used in this paper is available at https://github.com/usyd-fsalab/NeuralNetworkRandomness.