The deployment and scaling of large language models (LLMs) have become critical as they permeate various applications, demanding high-throughput and low-latency serving systems. Existing frameworks struggle to balance these requirements, especially for workloads with long prompts. This paper introduces DeepSpeed-FastGen, a system that employs Dynamic SplitFuse, a novel prompt and generation composition strategy, to deliver up to 2.3x higher effective throughput, 2x lower latency on average, and up to 3.7x lower (token-level) tail latency, compared to state-of-the-art systems like vLLM. We leverage a synergistic combination of DeepSpeed-MII and DeepSpeed-Inference to provide an efficient and easy-to-use serving system for LLMs. DeepSpeed-FastGen's advanced implementation supports a range of models and offers both non-persistent and persistent deployment options, catering to diverse user scenarios from interactive sessions to long-running applications. We present a detailed benchmarking methodology, analyze the performance through latency-throughput curves, and investigate scalability via load balancing. Our evaluations demonstrate substantial improvements in throughput and latency across various models and hardware configurations. We discuss our roadmap for future enhancements, including broader model support and new hardware backends. The DeepSpeed-FastGen code is readily available for community engagement and contribution.
In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
Computation in a typical Transformer-based large language model (LLM) can be characterized by batch size, hidden dimension, number of layers, and sequence length. Until now, system works for accelerating LLM training have focused on the first three dimensions: data parallelism for batch size, tensor parallelism for hidden size and pipeline parallelism for model depth or layers. These widely studied forms of parallelism are not targeted or optimized for long sequence Transformer models. Given practical application needs for long sequence LLM, renewed attentions are being drawn to sequence parallelism. However, existing works in sequence parallelism are constrained by memory-communication inefficiency, limiting their scalability to long sequence large models. In this work, we introduce DeepSpeed-Ulysses, a novel, portable and effective methodology for enabling highly efficient and scalable LLM training with extremely long sequence length. DeepSpeed-Ulysses at its core partitions input data along the sequence dimension and employs an efficient all-to-all collective communication for attention computation. Theoretical communication analysis shows that whereas other methods incur communication overhead as sequence length increases, DeepSpeed-Ulysses maintains constant communication volume when sequence length and compute devices are increased proportionally. Furthermore, experimental evaluations show that DeepSpeed-Ulysses trains 2.5X faster with 4X longer sequence length than the existing method SOTA baseline.
ChatGPT-like models have revolutionized various applications in artificial intelligence, from summarization and coding to translation, matching or even surpassing human performance. However, the current landscape lacks an accessible, efficient, and cost-effective end-to-end RLHF (Reinforcement Learning with Human Feedback) training pipeline for these powerful models, particularly when training at the scale of billions of parameters. This paper introduces DeepSpeed-Chat, a novel system that democratizes RLHF training, making it accessible to the AI community. DeepSpeed-Chat offers three key capabilities: an easy-to-use training and inference experience for ChatGPT-like models, a DeepSpeed-RLHF pipeline that replicates the training pipeline from InstructGPT, and a robust DeepSpeed-RLHF system that combines various optimizations for training and inference in a unified way. The system delivers unparalleled efficiency and scalability, enabling training of models with hundreds of billions of parameters in record time and at a fraction of the cost. With this development, DeepSpeed-Chat paves the way for broader access to advanced RLHF training, even for data scientists with limited resources, thereby fostering innovation and further development in the field of AI.
This work proposes RaNNC (Rapid Neural Network Connector) as middleware for automatic hybrid parallelism. In recent deep learning research, as exemplified by T5 and GPT-3, the size of neural network models continues to grow. Since such models do not fit into the memory of accelerator devices, they need to be partitioned by model parallelism techniques. Moreover, to accelerate training for huge training data, we need a combination of model and data parallelisms, i.e., hybrid parallelism. Given a model description for PyTorch without any specification for model parallelism, RaNNC automatically partitions the model into a set of subcomponents so that (1) each subcomponent fits a device memory and (2) a high training throughput for pipeline parallelism is achieved by balancing the computation times of the subcomponents. In our experiments, we compared RaNNC with two popular frameworks, Megatron-LM (hybrid parallelism) and GPipe (originally proposed for model parallelism, but a version allowing hybrid parallelism also exists), for training models with increasingly greater numbers of parameters. In the pre-training of enlarged BERT models, RaNNC successfully trained models five times larger than those Megatron-LM could, and RaNNC's training throughputs were comparable to Megatron-LM's when pre-training the same models. RaNNC also achieved better training throughputs than GPipe on both the enlarged BERT model pre-training (GPipe with hybrid parallelism) and the enlarged ResNet models (GPipe with model parallelism) in all of the settings we tried. These results are remarkable, since RaNNC automatically partitions models without any modification to their descriptions; Megatron-LM and GPipe require users to manually rewrite the models' descriptions.
* Accepted to the 35th IEEE International Parallel and Distributed
Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2021), May 2021