The rapid growth of memory and computation requirements of large language models (LLMs) has outpaced the development of hardware, hindering people who lack large-scale high-end GPUs from training or deploying LLMs. However, consumer-level GPUs, which constitute a larger market share, are typically overlooked in LLM due to their weaker computing performance, smaller storage capacity, and lower communication bandwidth. Additionally, users may have privacy concerns when interacting with remote LLMs. In this paper, we envision a decentralized system unlocking the potential vast untapped consumer-level GPUs in pre-training, inference and fine-tuning of LLMs with privacy protection. However, this system faces critical challenges, including limited CPU and GPU memory, low network bandwidth, the variability of peer and device heterogeneity. To address these challenges, our system design incorporates: 1) a broker with backup pool to implement dynamic join and quit of computing providers; 2) task scheduling with hardware performance to improve system efficiency; 3) abstracting ML procedures into directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to achieve model and task universality; 4) abstracting intermediate represention and execution planes to ensure compatibility of various devices and deep learning (DL) frameworks. Our performance analysis demonstrates that 50 RTX 3080 GPUs can achieve throughputs comparable to those of 4 H100 GPUs, which are significantly more expensive.
Machine learning typically relies on the assumption that training and testing distributions are identical and that data is centrally stored for training and testing. However, in real-world scenarios, distributions may differ significantly and data is often distributed across different devices, organizations, or edge nodes. Consequently, it is imperative to develop models that can effectively generalize to unseen distributions where data is distributed across different domains. In response to this challenge, there has been a surge of interest in federated domain generalization (FDG) in recent years. FDG combines the strengths of federated learning (FL) and domain generalization (DG) techniques to enable multiple source domains to collaboratively learn a model capable of directly generalizing to unseen domains while preserving data privacy. However, generalizing the federated model under domain shifts is a technically challenging problem that has received scant attention in the research area so far. This paper presents the first survey of recent advances in this area. Initially, we discuss the development process from traditional machine learning to domain adaptation and domain generalization, leading to FDG as well as provide the corresponding formal definition. Then, we categorize recent methodologies into four classes: federated domain alignment, data manipulation, learning strategies, and aggregation optimization, and present suitable algorithms in detail for each category. Next, we introduce commonly used datasets, applications, evaluations, and benchmarks. Finally, we conclude this survey by providing some potential research topics for the future.
Monocular 3D reconstruction is to reconstruct the shape of object and its other detailed information from a single RGB image. In 3D reconstruction, polygon mesh is the most prevalent expression form obtained from deep learning models, with detailed surface information and low computational cost. However, some state-of-the-art works fail to generate well-structured meshes, these meshes have two severe problems which we call Vertices Clustering and Illegal Twist. By delving into the mesh deformation procedure, we pinpoint the inadequate usage of Chamfer Distance(CD) metric in deep learning model. In this paper, we initially demonstrate the problems resulting from CD with visual examples and quantitative analyses. To solve these problems, we propose a fine-grained reconstruction method CD$^2$ with Chamfer distance adopted twice to perform a plausible and adaptive deformation. Extensive experiments on two 3D datasets and the comparison of our newly proposed mesh quality metrics demonstrate that our CD$^2$ outperforms others by generating better-structured meshes.
Federated learning utilizes various resources provided by participants to collaboratively train a global model, which potentially address the data privacy issue of machine learning. In such promising paradigm, the performance will be deteriorated without sufficient training data and other resources in the learning process. Thus, it is quite crucial to inspire more participants to contribute their valuable resources with some payments for federated learning. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of incentive schemes for federate learning. Specifically, we identify the incentive problem in federated learning and then provide a taxonomy for various schemes. Subsequently, we summarize the existing incentive mechanisms in terms of the main techniques, such as Stackelberg game, auction, contract theory, Shapley value, reinforcement learning, blockchain. By reviewing and comparing some impressive results, we figure out three directions for the future study.
Promising federated learning coupled with Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) is considered as one of the most promising solutions to the AI-driven service provision. Plenty of studies focus on federated learning from the performance and security aspects, but they neglect the incentive mechanism. In MEC, edge nodes would not like to voluntarily participate in learning, and they differ in the provision of multi-dimensional resources, both of which might deteriorate the performance of federated learning. Also, lightweight schemes appeal to edge nodes in MEC. These features require the incentive mechanism to be well designed for MEC. In this paper, we present an incentive mechanism FMore with multi-dimensional procurement auction of K winners. Our proposal FMore not only is lightweight and incentive compatible, but also encourages more high-quality edge nodes with low cost to participate in learning and eventually improve the performance of federated learning. We also present theoretical results of Nash equilibrium strategy to edge nodes and employ the expected utility theory to provide guidance to the aggregator. Both extensive simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme can effectively reduce the training rounds and drastically improve the model accuracy for challenging AI tasks.