Machine learning typically relies on the assumption that training and testing distributions are identical and that data is centrally stored for training and testing. However, in real-world scenarios, distributions may differ significantly and data is often distributed across different devices, organizations, or edge nodes. Consequently, it is imperative to develop models that can effectively generalize to unseen distributions where data is distributed across different domains. In response to this challenge, there has been a surge of interest in federated domain generalization (FDG) in recent years. FDG combines the strengths of federated learning (FL) and domain generalization (DG) techniques to enable multiple source domains to collaboratively learn a model capable of directly generalizing to unseen domains while preserving data privacy. However, generalizing the federated model under domain shifts is a technically challenging problem that has received scant attention in the research area so far. This paper presents the first survey of recent advances in this area. Initially, we discuss the development process from traditional machine learning to domain adaptation and domain generalization, leading to FDG as well as provide the corresponding formal definition. Then, we categorize recent methodologies into four classes: federated domain alignment, data manipulation, learning strategies, and aggregation optimization, and present suitable algorithms in detail for each category. Next, we introduce commonly used datasets, applications, evaluations, and benchmarks. Finally, we conclude this survey by providing some potential research topics for the future.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy phosphate compound and the most direct energy source in organisms. ATP is an essential biomarker for evaluating cell viability in biology. Researchers often use ATP bioluminescence to measure the ATP of organoid after drug to evaluate the drug efficacy. However, ATP bioluminescence has some limitations, leading to unreliable drug screening results. Performing ATP bioluminescence causes cell lysis of organoids, so it is impossible to observe organoids' long-term viability changes after medication continually. To overcome the disadvantages of ATP bioluminescence, we propose Ins-ATP, a non-invasive strategy, the first organoid ATP estimation model based on the high-throughput microscopic image. Ins-ATP directly estimates the ATP of organoids from high-throughput microscopic images, so that it does not influence the drug reactions of organoids. Therefore, the ATP change of organoids can be observed for a long time to obtain more stable results. Experimental results show that the ATP estimation by Ins-ATP is in good agreement with those determined by ATP bioluminescence. Specifically, the predictions of Ins-ATP are consistent with the results measured by ATP bioluminescence in the efficacy evaluation experiments of different drugs.
In this work, we propose an adversarial attack-based data augmentation method to improve the deep-learning-based segmentation algorithm for the delineation of Organs-At-Risk (OAR) in abdominal Computed Tomography (CT) to facilitate radiation therapy. We introduce Adversarial Feature Attack for Medical Image (AFA-MI) augmentation, which forces the segmentation network to learn out-of-distribution statistics and improve generalization and robustness to noises. AFA-MI augmentation consists of three steps: 1) generate adversarial noises by Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM) on the intermediate features of the segmentation network's encoder; 2) inject the generated adversarial noises into the network, intentionally compromising performance; 3) optimize the network with both clean and adversarial features. Experiments are conducted segmenting the heart, left and right kidney, liver, left and right lung, spinal cord, and stomach. We first evaluate the AFA-MI augmentation using nnUnet and TT-Vnet on the test data from a public abdominal dataset and an institutional dataset. In addition, we validate how AFA-MI affects the networks' robustness to the noisy data by evaluating the networks with added Gaussian noises of varying magnitudes to the institutional dataset. Network performance is quantitatively evaluated using Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) for volume-based accuracy. Also, Hausdorff Distance (HD) is applied for surface-based accuracy. On the public dataset, nnUnet with AFA-MI achieves DSC = 0.85 and HD = 6.16 millimeters (mm); and TT-Vnet achieves DSC = 0.86 and HD = 5.62 mm. AFA-MI augmentation further improves all contour accuracies up to 0.217 DSC score when tested on images with Gaussian noises. AFA-MI augmentation is therefore demonstrated to improve segmentation performance and robustness in CT multi-organ segmentation.
In the deployment of deep neural models, how to effectively and automatically find feasible deep models under diverse design objectives is fundamental. Most existing neural architecture search (NAS) methods utilize surrogates to predict the detailed performance (e.g., accuracy and model size) of a candidate architecture during the search, which however is complicated and inefficient. In contrast, we aim to learn an efficient Pareto classifier to simplify the search process of NAS by transforming the complex multi-objective NAS task into a simple Pareto-dominance classification task. To this end, we propose a classification-wise Pareto evolution approach for one-shot NAS, where an online classifier is trained to predict the dominance relationship between the candidate and constructed reference architectures, instead of using surrogates to fit the objective functions. The main contribution of this study is to change supernet adaption into a Pareto classifier. Besides, we design two adaptive schemes to select the reference set of architectures for constructing classification boundary and regulate the rate of positive samples over negative ones, respectively. We compare the proposed evolution approach with state-of-the-art approaches on widely-used benchmark datasets, and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and have found a number of neural architectures with different model sizes ranging from 2M to 6M under diverse objectives and constraints.
Nowadays, collaborative filtering recommender systems have been widely deployed in many commercial companies to make profit. Neighbourhood-based collaborative filtering is common and effective. To date, despite its effectiveness, there has been little effort to explore their robustness and the impact of data poisoning attacks on their performance. Can the neighbourhood-based recommender systems be easily fooled? To this end, we shed light on the robustness of neighbourhood-based recommender systems and propose a novel data poisoning attack framework encoding the purpose of attack and constraint against them. We firstly illustrate how to calculate the optimal data poisoning attack, namely UNAttack. We inject a few well-designed fake users into the recommender systems such that target items will be recommended to as many normal users as possible. Extensive experiments are conducted on three real-world datasets to validate the effectiveness and the transferability of our proposed method. Besides, some interesting phenomenons can be found. For example, 1) neighbourhood-based recommender systems with Euclidean Distance-based similarity have strong robustness. 2) the fake users can be transferred to attack the state-of-the-art collaborative filtering recommender systems such as Neural Collaborative Filtering and Bayesian Personalized Ranking Matrix Factorization.