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Lekai Song, Pengyu Liu, Jingfang Pei, Yang Liu, Songwei Liu, Shengbo Wang, Leonard W. T. Ng, Tawfique Hasan, Kong-Pang Pun, Shuo Gao, Guohua Hu

Stochastic computing offers a probabilistic approach to address challenges posed by problems with uncertainty and noise in various fields, particularly machine learning. The realization of stochastic computing, however, faces the limitation of developing reliable stochastic logics. Here, we present stochastic logics development using memristors. Specifically, we integrate memristors into logic circuits to design the stochastic logics, wherein the inherent stochasticity in memristor switching is harnessed to enable stochastic number encoding and processing with well-regulated probabilities and correlations. As a practical application of the stochastic logics, we design a compact stochastic Roberts cross operator for edge detection. Remarkably, the operator demonstrates exceptional contour and texture extractions, even in the presence of 50% noise, and owning to the probabilistic nature and compact design, the operator can consume 95% less computational costs required by conventional binary computing. The results underscore the great potential of our stochastic computing approach as a lightweight local solution to machine learning challenges in autonomous driving, virtual reality, medical diagnosis, industrial automation, and beyond.

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Hanrui Wang, Pengyu Liu, Yilian Liu, Jiaqi Gu, Jonathan Baker, Frederic T. Chong, Song Han

Quantum hardware suffers from high error rates and noise, which makes directly running applications on them ineffective. Quantum Error Correction (QEC) is a critical technique towards fault tolerance which encodes the quantum information distributively in multiple data qubits and uses syndrome qubits to check parity. Minimum-Weight-Perfect-Matching (MWPM) is a popular QEC decoder that takes the syndromes as input and finds the matchings between syndromes that infer the errors. However, there are two paramount challenges for MWPM decoders. First, as noise in real quantum systems can drift over time, there is a potential misalignment with the decoding graph's initial weights, leading to a severe performance degradation in the logical error rates. Second, while the MWPM decoder addresses independent errors, it falls short when encountering correlated errors typical on real hardware, such as those in the 2Q depolarizing channel. We propose DGR, an efficient decoding graph edge re-weighting strategy with no quantum overhead. It leverages the insight that the statistics of matchings across decoding iterations offer rich information about errors on real quantum hardware. By counting the occurrences of edges and edge pairs in decoded matchings, we can statistically estimate the up-to-date probabilities of each edge and the correlations between them. The reweighting process includes two vital steps: alignment re-weighting and correlation re-weighting. The former updates the MWPM weights based on statistics to align with actual noise, and the latter adjusts the weight considering edge correlations. Extensive evaluations on surface code and honeycomb code under various settings show that DGR reduces the logical error rate by 3.6x on average-case noise mismatch with exceeding 5000x improvement under worst-case mismatch.

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Hanrui Wang, Pengyu Liu, Kevin Shao, Dantong Li, Jiaqi Gu, David Z. Pan, Yongshan Ding, Song Han

Quantum computing has the potential to solve problems that are intractable for classical systems, yet the high error rates in contemporary quantum devices often exceed tolerable limits for useful algorithm execution. Quantum Error Correction (QEC) mitigates this by employing redundancy, distributing quantum information across multiple data qubits and utilizing syndrome qubits to monitor their states for errors. The syndromes are subsequently interpreted by a decoding algorithm to identify and correct errors in the data qubits. This task is complex due to the multiplicity of error sources affecting both data and syndrome qubits as well as syndrome extraction operations. Additionally, identical syndromes can emanate from different error sources, necessitating a decoding algorithm that evaluates syndromes collectively. Although machine learning (ML) decoders such as multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been proposed, they often focus on local syndrome regions and require retraining when adjusting for different code distances. We introduce a transformer-based QEC decoder which employs self-attention to achieve a global receptive field across all input syndromes. It incorporates a mixed loss training approach, combining both local physical error and global parity label losses. Moreover, the transformer architecture's inherent adaptability to variable-length inputs allows for efficient transfer learning, enabling the decoder to adapt to varying code distances without retraining. Evaluation on six code distances and ten different error configurations demonstrates that our model consistently outperforms non-ML decoders, such as Union Find (UF) and Minimum Weight Perfect Matching (MWPM), and other ML decoders, thereby achieving best logical error rates. Moreover, the transfer learning can save over 10x of training cost.

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Hanrui Wang, Yilian Liu, Pengyu Liu, Jiaqi Gu, Zirui Li, Zhiding Liang, Jinglei Cheng, Yongshan Ding, Xuehai Qian, Yiyu Shi, David Z. Pan, Frederic T. Chong, Song Han

Quantum state preparation, a crucial subroutine in quantum computing, involves generating a target quantum state from initialized qubits. Arbitrary state preparation algorithms can be broadly categorized into arithmetic decomposition (AD) and variational quantum state preparation (VQSP). AD employs a predefined procedure to decompose the target state into a series of gates, whereas VQSP iteratively tunes ansatz parameters to approximate target state. VQSP is particularly apt for Noisy-Intermediate Scale Quantum (NISQ) machines due to its shorter circuits. However, achieving noise-robust parameter optimization still remains challenging. We present RobustState, a novel VQSP training methodology that combines high robustness with high training efficiency. The core idea involves utilizing measurement outcomes from real machines to perform back-propagation through classical simulators, thus incorporating real quantum noise into gradient calculations. RobustState serves as a versatile, plug-and-play technique applicable for training parameters from scratch or fine-tuning existing parameters to enhance fidelity on target machines. It is adaptable to various ansatzes at both gate and pulse levels and can even benefit other variational algorithms, such as variational unitary synthesis. Comprehensive evaluation of RobustState on state preparation tasks for 4 distinct quantum algorithms using 10 real quantum machines demonstrates a coherent error reduction of up to 7.1 $\times$ and state fidelity improvement of up to 96\% and 81\% for 4-Q and 5-Q states, respectively. On average, RobustState improves fidelity by 50\% and 72\% for 4-Q and 5-Q states compared to baseline approaches.

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Pengyu Liu, Tinghao Feng, Rui Liu

We introduce a graph polynomial that distinguishes tree structures to represent dependency grammar and a measure based on the polynomial representation to quantify syntax similarity. The polynomial encodes accurate and comprehensive information about the dependency structure and dependency relations of words in a sentence. We apply the polynomial-based methods to analyze sentences in the Parallel Universal Dependencies treebanks. Specifically, we compare the syntax of sentences and their translations in different languages, and we perform a syntactic typology study of available languages in the Parallel Universal Dependencies treebanks. We also demonstrate and discuss the potential of the methods in measuring syntax diversity of corpora.

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Hanrui Wang, Pengyu Liu, Jinglei Cheng, Zhiding Liang, Jiaqi Gu, Zirui Li, Yongshan Ding, Weiwen Jiang, Yiyu Shi, Xuehai Qian, David Z. Pan, Frederic T. Chong, Song Han

Among different quantum algorithms, PQC for QML show promises on near-term devices. To facilitate the QML and PQC research, a recent python library called TorchQuantum has been released. It can construct, simulate, and train PQC for machine learning tasks with high speed and convenient debugging supports. Besides quantum for ML, we want to raise the community's attention on the reversed direction: ML for quantum. Specifically, the TorchQuantum library also supports using data-driven ML models to solve problems in quantum system research, such as predicting the impact of quantum noise on circuit fidelity and improving the quantum circuit compilation efficiency. This paper presents a case study of the ML for quantum part. Since estimating the noise impact on circuit reliability is an essential step toward understanding and mitigating noise, we propose to leverage classical ML to predict noise impact on circuit fidelity. Inspired by the natural graph representation of quantum circuits, we propose to leverage a graph transformer model to predict the noisy circuit fidelity. We firstly collect a large dataset with a variety of quantum circuits and obtain their fidelity on noisy simulators and real machines. Then we embed each circuit into a graph with gate and noise properties as node features, and adopt a graph transformer to predict the fidelity. Evaluated on 5 thousand random and algorithm circuits, the graph transformer predictor can provide accurate fidelity estimation with RMSE error 0.04 and outperform a simple neural network-based model by 0.02 on average. It can achieve 0.99 and 0.95 R$^2$ scores for random and algorithm circuits, respectively. Compared with circuit simulators, the predictor has over 200X speedup for estimating the fidelity.

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Avraham A. Melkman, Sini Guo, Wai-Ki Ching, Pengyu Liu, Tatsuya Akutsu

An autoencoder is a layered neural network whose structure can be viewed as consisting of an encoder, which compresses an input vector of dimension $D$ to a vector of low dimension $d$, and a decoder which transforms the low-dimensional vector back to the original input vector (or one that is very similar). In this paper we explore the compressive power of autoencoders that are Boolean threshold networks by studying the numbers of nodes and layers that are required to ensure that the numbers of nodes and layers that are required to ensure that each vector in a given set of distinct input binary vectors is transformed back to its original. We show that for any set of $n$ distinct vectors there exists a seven-layer autoencoder with the smallest possible middle layer, (i.e., its size is logarithmic in $n$), but that there is a set of $n$ vectors for which there is no three-layer autoencoder with a middle layer of the same size. In addition we present a kind of trade-off: if a considerably larger middle layer is permissible then a five-layer autoencoder does exist. We also study encoding by itself. The results we obtain suggest that it is the decoding that constitutes the bottleneck of autoencoding. For example, there always is a three-layer Boolean threshold encoder that compresses $n$ vectors into a dimension that is reduced to twice the logarithm of $n$.

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