Graph learning has a wide range of applications in many scenarios, which require more need for data privacy. Federated learning is an emerging distributed machine learning approach that leverages data from individual devices or data centers to improve the accuracy and generalization of the model, while also protecting the privacy of user data. Graph-federated learning is mainly based on the classical federated learning framework i.e., the Client-Server framework. However, the Client-Server framework faces problems such as a single point of failure of the central server and poor scalability of network topology. First, we introduce the decentralized framework to graph-federated learning. Second, determine the confidence among nodes based on the similarity of data among nodes, subsequently, the gradient information is then aggregated by linear weighting based on confidence. Finally, the proposed method is compared with FedAvg, Fedprox, GCFL, and GCFL+ to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other methods.
Large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT have gained increasing prominence in artificial intelligence, making a profound impact on society and various industries like business and science. However, the presence of false information on the internet and in text corpus poses a significant risk to the reliability and safety of LLMs, underscoring the urgent need to understand the mechanisms of how false information impacts and spreads in LLMs. In this paper, we investigate how false information spreads in LLMs and affects related responses by conducting a series of experiments on the effects of source authority, injection paradigm, and information relevance. Specifically, we compare four authority levels of information sources (Twitter, web blogs, news reports, and research papers), two common knowledge injection paradigms (in-context injection and learning-based injection), and three degrees of information relevance (direct, indirect, and peripheral). The experimental results show that (1) False information will spread and contaminate related memories in LLMs via a semantic diffusion process, i.e., false information has global detrimental effects beyond its direct impact. (2) Current LLMs are susceptible to authority bias, i.e., LLMs are more likely to follow false information presented in a trustworthy style like news or research papers, which usually causes deeper and wider pollution of information. (3) Current LLMs are more sensitive to false information through in-context injection than through learning-based injection, which severely challenges the reliability and safety of LLMs even if all training data are trusty and correct. The above findings raise the need for new false information defense algorithms to address the global impact of false information, and new alignment algorithms to unbiasedly lead LLMs to follow internal human values rather than superficial patterns.
Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) systems face challenges in detecting loop closure under the circumstance of large viewpoint changes. In this paper, we present an object-based loop closure detection method based on the spatial layout and semanic consistency of the 3D scene graph. Firstly, we propose an object-level data association approach based on the semantic information from semantic labels, intersection over union (IoU), object color, and object embedding. Subsequently, multi-view bundle adjustment with the associated objects is utilized to jointly optimize the poses of objects and cameras. We represent the refined objects as a 3D spatial graph with semantics and topology. Then, we propose a graph matching approach to select correspondence objects based on the structure layout and semantic property similarity of vertices' neighbors. Finally, we jointly optimize camera trajectories and object poses in an object-level pose graph optimization, which results in a globally consistent map. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed data association approach can construct more accurate 3D semantic maps, and our loop closure method is more robust than point-based and object-based methods in circumstances with large viewpoint changes.
Recent studies in lossy compression show that distortion and perceptual quality are at odds with each other, which put forward the tradeoff between distortion and perception (D-P). Intuitively, to attain different perceptual quality, different decoders have to be trained. In this paper, we present a nontrivial finding that only two decoders are sufficient for optimally achieving arbitrary (an infinite number of different) D-P tradeoff. We prove that arbitrary points of the D-P tradeoff bound can be achieved by a simple linear interpolation between the outputs of a minimum MSE decoder and a specifically constructed perfect perceptual decoder. Meanwhile, the perceptual quality (in terms of the squared Wasserstein-2 distance metric) can be quantitatively controlled by the interpolation factor. Furthermore, to construct a perfect perceptual decoder, we propose two theoretically optimal training frameworks. The new frameworks are different from the distortion-plus-adversarial loss based heuristic framework widely used in existing methods, which are not only theoretically optimal but also can yield state-of-the-art performance in practical perceptual decoding. Finally, we validate our theoretical finding and demonstrate the superiority of our frameworks via experiments. Code is available at: https://github.com/ZeyuYan/Controllable-Perceptual-Compression
Gradient descent or its variants are popular in training neural networks. However, in deep Q-learning with neural network approximation, a type of reinforcement learning, gradient descent (also known as Residual Gradient (RG)) is barely used to solve Bellman residual minimization problem. On the contrary, Temporal Difference (TD), an incomplete gradient descent method prevails. In this work, we perform extensive experiments to show that TD outperforms RG, that is, when the training leads to a small Bellman residual error, the solution found by TD has a better policy and is more robust against the perturbation of neural network parameters. We further use experiments to reveal a key difference between reinforcement learning and supervised learning, that is, a small Bellman residual error can correspond to a bad policy in reinforcement learning while the test loss function in supervised learning is a standard index to indicate the performance. We also empirically examine that the missing term in TD is a key reason why RG performs badly. Our work shows that the performance of a deep Q-learning solution is closely related to the training dynamics and how an incomplete gradient descent method can find a good policy is interesting for future study.
Action recognition has been a heated topic in computer vision for its wide application in vision systems. Previous approaches achieve improvement by fusing the modalities of the skeleton sequence and RGB video. However, such methods have a dilemma between the accuracy and efficiency for the high complexity of the RGB video network. To solve the problem, we propose a multi-modality feature fusion network to combine the modalities of the skeleton sequence and RGB frame instead of the RGB video, as the key information contained by the combination of skeleton sequence and RGB frame is close to that of the skeleton sequence and RGB video. In this way, the complementary information is retained while the complexity is reduced by a large margin. To better explore the correspondence of the two modalities, a two-stage fusion framework is introduced in the network. In the early fusion stage, we introduce a skeleton attention module that projects the skeleton sequence on the single RGB frame to help the RGB frame focus on the limb movement regions. In the late fusion stage, we propose a cross-attention module to fuse the skeleton feature and the RGB feature by exploiting the correlation. Experiments on two benchmarks NTU RGB+D and SYSU show that the proposed model achieves competitive performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods while reduces the complexity of the network.
* Accepted by ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications,
and Applications (TOMM)
Recently, deep neural network (DNN) based time-frequency (T-F) mask estimation has shown remarkable effectiveness for speech enhancement. Typically, a single T-F mask is first estimated based on DNN and then used to mask the spectrogram of noisy speech in an order to suppress the noise. This work proposes a multi-mask fusion method for speech enhancement. It simultaneously estimates two complementary masks, e.g., ideal ratio mask (IRM) and target binary mask (TBM), and then fuse them to obtain a refined mask for speech enhancement. The advantage of the new method is twofold. First, simultaneously estimating multiple complementary masks brings benefit endowed by multi-target learning. Second, multi-mask fusion can exploit the complementarity of multiple masks to boost the performance of speech enhancement. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve significant PESQ improvement and reduce the recognition error rate of back-end over traditional masking-based methods. Code is available at https://github.com/lc-zhou/mask-fusion.
Recently, much progress has been made in unsupervised restoration learning. However, existing methods more or less rely on some assumptions on the signal and/or degradation model, which limits their practical performance. How to construct an optimal criterion for unsupervised restoration learning without any prior knowledge on the degradation model is still an open question. Toward answering this question, this work proposes a criterion for unsupervised restoration learning based on the optimal transport theory. This criterion has favorable properties, e.g., approximately maximal preservation of the information of the signal, whilst achieving perceptual reconstruction. Furthermore, though a relaxed unconstrained formulation is used in practical implementation, we show that the relaxed formulation in theory has the same solution as the original constrained formulation. Experiments on synthetic and real-world data, including realistic photographic, microscopy, depth, and raw depth images, demonstrate that the proposed method even compares favorably with supervised methods, e.g., approaching the PSNR of supervised methods while having better perceptual quality. Particularly, for spatially correlated noise and realistic microscopy images, the proposed method not only achieves better perceptual quality but also has higher PSNR than supervised methods. Besides, it shows remarkable superiority in harsh practical conditions with complex noise, e.g., raw depth images.