To endow models with greater understanding of physics and motion, it is useful to enable them to perceive how solid surfaces move and deform in real scenes. This can be formalized as Tracking-Any-Point (TAP), which requires the algorithm to be able to track any point corresponding to a solid surface in a video, potentially densely in space and time. Large-scale ground-truth training data for TAP is only available in simulation, which currently has limited variety of objects and motion. In this work, we demonstrate how large-scale, unlabeled, uncurated real-world data can improve a TAP model with minimal architectural changes, using a self-supervised student-teacher setup. We demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on the TAP-Vid benchmark surpassing previous results by a wide margin: for example, TAP-Vid-DAVIS performance improves from 61.3% to 66.4%, and TAP-Vid-Kinetics from 57.2% to 61.5%.
Large-scale visual language models are widely used as pre-trained models and then adapted for various downstream tasks. While humans are known to efficiently learn new tasks from a few examples, deep learning models struggle with adaptation from few examples. In this work, we look into task adaptation in the low-data regime, and provide a thorough study of the existing adaptation methods for generative Visual Language Models. And we show important benefits of self-labelling, i.e. using the model's own predictions to self-improve when having access to a larger number of unlabelled images of the same distribution. Our study demonstrates significant gains using our proposed task adaptation pipeline across a wide range of visual language tasks such as visual classification (ImageNet), visual captioning (COCO), detailed visual captioning (Localised Narratives) and visual question answering (VQAv2).
Attention-based models are appealing for multimodal processing because inputs from multiple modalities can be concatenated and fed to a single backbone network - thus requiring very little fusion engineering. The resulting representations are however fully entangled throughout the network, which may not always be desirable: in learning, contrastive audio-visual self-supervised learning requires independent audio and visual features to operate, otherwise learning collapses; in inference, evaluation of audio-visual models should be possible on benchmarks having just audio or just video. In this paper, we introduce Zorro, a technique that uses masks to control how inputs from each modality are routed inside Transformers, keeping some parts of the representation modality-pure. We apply this technique to three popular transformer-based architectures (ViT, Swin and HiP) and show that with contrastive pre-training Zorro achieves state-of-the-art results on most relevant benchmarks for multimodal tasks (AudioSet and VGGSound). Furthermore, the resulting models are able to perform unimodal inference on both video and audio benchmarks such as Kinetics-400 or ESC-50.
Building models that can be rapidly adapted to numerous tasks using only a handful of annotated examples is an open challenge for multimodal machine learning research. We introduce Flamingo, a family of Visual Language Models (VLM) with this ability. Flamingo models include key architectural innovations to: (i) bridge powerful pretrained vision-only and language-only models, (ii) handle sequences of arbitrarily interleaved visual and textual data, and (iii) seamlessly ingest images or videos as inputs. Thanks to their flexibility, Flamingo models can be trained on large-scale multimodal web corpora containing arbitrarily interleaved text and images, which is key to endow them with in-context few-shot learning capabilities. We perform a thorough evaluation of the proposed Flamingo models, exploring and measuring their ability to rapidly adapt to a variety of image and video understanding benchmarks. These include open-ended tasks such as visual question-answering, where the model is prompted with a question which it has to answer, captioning tasks, which evaluate the ability to describe a scene or an event, and close-ended tasks such as multiple choice visual question-answering. For tasks lying anywhere on this spectrum, we demonstrate that a single Flamingo model can achieve a new state of the art for few-shot learning, simply by prompting the model with task-specific examples. On many of these benchmarks, Flamingo actually surpasses the performance of models that are fine-tuned on thousands of times more task-specific data.
The ability to learn universal audio representations that can solve diverse speech, music, and environment tasks can spur many applications that require general sound content understanding. In this work, we introduce a holistic audio representation evaluation suite (HARES) spanning 12 downstream tasks across audio domains and provide a thorough empirical study of recent sound representation learning systems on that benchmark. We discover that previous sound event classification or speech models do not generalize outside of their domains. We observe that more robust audio representations can be learned with the SimCLR objective; however, the model's transferability depends heavily on the model architecture. We find the Slowfast architecture is good at learning rich representations required by different domains, but its performance is affected by the normalization scheme. Based on these findings, we propose a novel normalizer-free Slowfast NFNet and achieve state-of-the-art performance across all domains.
We present a multimodal framework to learn general audio representations from videos. Existing contrastive audio representation learning methods mainly focus on using the audio modality alone during training. In this work, we show that additional information contained in video can be utilized to greatly improve the learned features. First, we demonstrate that our contrastive framework does not require high resolution images to learn good audio features. This allows us to scale up the training batch size, while keeping the computational load incurred by the additional video modality to a reasonable level. Second, we use augmentations that mix together different samples. We show that this is effective to make the proxy task harder, which leads to substantial performance improvements when increasing the batch size. As a result, our audio model achieves a state-of-the-art of 42.4 mAP on the AudioSet classification downstream task, closing the gap between supervised and self-supervised methods trained on the same dataset. Moreover, we show that our method is advantageous on a broad range of non-semantic audio tasks, including speaker identification, keyword spotting, language identification, and music instrument classification.
Most successful self-supervised learning methods are trained to align the representations of two independent views from the data. State-of-the-art methods in video are inspired by image techniques, where these two views are similarly extracted by cropping and augmenting the resulting crop. However, these methods miss a crucial element in the video domain: time. We introduce BraVe, a self-supervised learning framework for video. In BraVe, one of the views has access to a narrow temporal window of the video while the other view has a broad access to the video content. Our models learn to generalise from the narrow view to the general content of the video. Furthermore, BraVe processes the views with different backbones, enabling the use of alternative augmentations or modalities into the broad view such as optical flow, randomly convolved RGB frames, audio or their combinations. We demonstrate that BraVe achieves state-of-the-art results in self-supervised representation learning on standard video and audio classification benchmarks including UCF101, HMDB51, Kinetics, ESC-50 and AudioSet.
The rapid progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning has opened unprecedented analytics possibilities in various team and individual sports, including baseball, basketball, and tennis. More recently, AI techniques have been applied to football, due to a huge increase in data collection by professional teams, increased computational power, and advances in machine learning, with the goal of better addressing new scientific challenges involved in the analysis of both individual players' and coordinated teams' behaviors. The research challenges associated with predictive and prescriptive football analytics require new developments and progress at the intersection of statistical learning, game theory, and computer vision. In this paper, we provide an overarching perspective highlighting how the combination of these fields, in particular, forms a unique microcosm for AI research, while offering mutual benefits for professional teams, spectators, and broadcasters in the years to come. We illustrate that this duality makes football analytics a game changer of tremendous value, in terms of not only changing the game of football itself, but also in terms of what this domain can mean for the field of AI. We review the state-of-the-art and exemplify the types of analysis enabled by combining the aforementioned fields, including illustrative examples of counterfactual analysis using predictive models, and the combination of game-theoretic analysis of penalty kicks with statistical learning of player attributes. We conclude by highlighting envisioned downstream impacts, including possibilities for extensions to other sports (real and virtual).
Recent breakthroughs in adversarial generative modeling have led to models capable of producing video samples of high quality, even on large and complex datasets of real-world video. In this work, we focus on the task of video prediction, where given a sequence of frames extracted from a video, the goal is to generate a plausible future sequence. We first improve the state of the art by performing a systematic empirical study of discriminator decompositions and proposing an architecture that yields faster convergence and higher performance than previous approaches. We then analyze recurrent units in the generator, and propose a novel recurrent unit which transforms its past hidden state according to predicted motion-like features, and refines it to to handle dis-occlusions, scene changes and other complex behavior. We show that this recurrent unit consistently outperforms previous designs. Our final model leads to a leap in the state-of-the-art performance, obtaining a test set Frechet Video Distance of 25.7, down from 69.2, on the large-scale Kinetics-600 dataset.