Adapting pre-trained language models (PLMs) for time-series text classification amidst evolving domain shifts (EDS) is critical for maintaining accuracy in applications like stance detection. This study benchmarks the effectiveness of evolving domain adaptation (EDA) strategies, notably self-training, domain-adversarial training, and domain-adaptive pretraining, with a focus on an incremental self-training method. Our analysis across various datasets reveals that this incremental method excels at adapting PLMs to EDS, outperforming traditional domain adaptation techniques. These findings highlight the importance of continually updating PLMs to ensure their effectiveness in real-world applications, paving the way for future research into PLM robustness against the natural temporal evolution of language.
Existing open-source helpfulness preference datasets do not specify what makes some responses more helpful and others less so. Models trained on these datasets can incidentally learn to model dataset artifacts (e.g. preferring longer but unhelpful responses only due to their length). To alleviate this problem, we collect HelpSteer, a multi-attribute helpfulness dataset annotated for the various aspects that make responses helpful. Specifically, our 37k-sample dataset has annotations for correctness, coherence, complexity, and verbosity in addition to overall helpfulness of responses. Training Llama 2 70B using the HelpSteer dataset with SteerLM technique produces a model that scores 7.54 on MT Bench, which is currently the highest score for open models that do not require training data from more powerful models (e.g. GPT4). We release this dataset with CC-BY-4.0 license at https://huggingface.co/datasets/nvidia/HelpSteer
Model alignment with human preferences is an essential step in making Large Language Models (LLMs) helpful and consistent with human values. It typically consists of supervised fine-tuning (SFT) and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) stages. However, RLHF faces inherent limitations stemming from a complex training setup and its tendency to align the model with implicit values that end users cannot control at run-time. Moreover, reward models in RLHF stage commonly rely on single-dimensional feedback as opposed to explicit, multifaceted signals that indicate attributes such as helpfulness, humor, and toxicity. To address these limitations, we propose SteerLM, a supervised fine-tuning method that empowers end-users to control responses during inference. SteerLM conditions responses to conform to an explicitly defined multi-dimensional set of attributes, thereby empowering a steerable AI capable of generating helpful and high-quality responses while maintaining customizability. Experiments show that SteerLM trained on open source datasets generates responses that are preferred by human and automatic evaluators to many state-of-the-art baselines trained with RLHF while being much easier to train. Try SteerLM at https://huggingface.co/nvidia/SteerLM-llama2-13B
Conversation designers continue to face significant obstacles when creating production quality task-oriented dialogue systems. The complexity and cost involved in schema development and data collection is often a major barrier for such designers, limiting their ability to create natural, user-friendly experiences. We frame the classification of user intent as the generation of a canonical form, a lightweight semantic representation using natural language. We show that canonical forms offer a promising alternative to traditional methods for intent classification. By tuning soft prompts for a frozen large language model, we show that canonical forms generalize very well to new, unseen domains in a zero- or few-shot setting. The method is also sample-efficient, reducing the complexity and effort of developing new task-oriented dialogue domains.
* Accepted for publication at SereTOD Workshop - EMNLP 2022
Subword tokenization schemes are the dominant technique used in current NLP models. However, such schemes can be rigid and tokenizers built on one corpus do not adapt well to other parallel corpora. It has also been observed that in multilingual corpora, subword tokenization schemes over-segment low-resource languages leading to a drop in translation performance. A simple alternative to subword tokenizers is byte-based methods i.e. tokenization into byte sequences using encoding schemes such as UTF-8. Byte tokens often represent inputs at a sub-character granularity i.e. one character can be represented by a sequence of multiple byte tokens. This results in byte sequences that are significantly longer than character sequences. Enforcing aggregation of local information in the lower layers can guide the model to build higher-level semantic information. We propose a Local Byte Fusion (LOBEF) method for byte-based machine translation -- utilizing byte $n$-gram and word boundaries -- to aggregate local semantic information. Extensive experiments on multilingual translation, zero-shot cross-lingual transfer, and domain adaptation reveal a consistent improvement over traditional byte-based models and even over subword techniques. Further analysis also indicates that our byte-based models are parameter-efficient and can be trained faster than subword models.
The ubiquitous nature of chatbots and their interaction with users generate an enormous amount of data. Can we improve chatbots using this data? A self-feeding chatbot improves itself by asking natural language feedback when a user is dissatisfied with its response and uses this feedback as an additional training sample. However, user feedback in most cases contains extraneous sequences hindering their usefulness as a training sample. In this work, we propose a generative adversarial model that converts noisy feedback into a plausible natural response in a conversation. The generator's goal is to convert the feedback into a response that answers the user's previous utterance and to fool the discriminator which distinguishes feedback from natural responses. We show that augmenting original training data with these modified feedback responses improves the original chatbot performance from 69.94% to 75.96% in ranking correct responses on the Personachat dataset, a large improvement given that the original model is already trained on 131k samples.
* Accepted for publication at Findings of EMNLP 2020
Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation (I2IT) tasks often suffer from lack of data, a problem which self-supervised learning (SSL) has recently been very popular and successful at tackling. Leveraging auxiliary tasks such as rotation prediction or generative colorization, SSL can produce better and more robust representations in a low data regime. Training such tasks along an I2IT task is however computationally intractable as model size and the number of task grow. On the other hand, learning sequentially could incur catastrophic forgetting of previously learned tasks. To alleviate this, we introduce Lifelong Self-Supervision (LiSS) as a way to pre-train an I2IT model (e.g., CycleGAN) on a set of self-supervised auxiliary tasks. By keeping an exponential moving average of past encoders and distilling the accumulated knowledge, we are able to maintain the network's validation performance on a number of tasks without any form of replay, parameter isolation or retraining techniques typically used in continual learning. We show that models trained with LiSS perform better on past tasks, while also being more robust than the CycleGAN baseline to color bias and entity entanglement (when two entities are very close).