We propose Tied-LoRA, a simple paradigm utilizes weight tying and selective training to further increase parameter efficiency of the Low-rank adaptation (LoRA) method. Our investigations include all feasible combinations parameter training/freezing in conjunction with weight tying to identify the optimal balance between performance and the number of trainable parameters. Through experiments covering a variety of tasks and two base language models, we provide analysis revealing trade-offs between efficiency and performance. Our experiments uncovered a particular Tied-LoRA configuration that stands out by demonstrating comparable performance across several tasks while employing only 13~\% percent of parameters utilized by the standard LoRA method.
Existing open-source helpfulness preference datasets do not specify what makes some responses more helpful and others less so. Models trained on these datasets can incidentally learn to model dataset artifacts (e.g. preferring longer but unhelpful responses only due to their length). To alleviate this problem, we collect HelpSteer, a multi-attribute helpfulness dataset annotated for the various aspects that make responses helpful. Specifically, our 37k-sample dataset has annotations for correctness, coherence, complexity, and verbosity in addition to overall helpfulness of responses. Training Llama 2 70B using the HelpSteer dataset with SteerLM technique produces a model that scores 7.54 on MT Bench, which is currently the highest score for open models that do not require training data from more powerful models (e.g. GPT4). We release this dataset with CC-BY-4.0 license at https://huggingface.co/datasets/nvidia/HelpSteer
Model alignment with human preferences is an essential step in making Large Language Models (LLMs) helpful and consistent with human values. It typically consists of supervised fine-tuning (SFT) and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) stages. However, RLHF faces inherent limitations stemming from a complex training setup and its tendency to align the model with implicit values that end users cannot control at run-time. Moreover, reward models in RLHF stage commonly rely on single-dimensional feedback as opposed to explicit, multifaceted signals that indicate attributes such as helpfulness, humor, and toxicity. To address these limitations, we propose SteerLM, a supervised fine-tuning method that empowers end-users to control responses during inference. SteerLM conditions responses to conform to an explicitly defined multi-dimensional set of attributes, thereby empowering a steerable AI capable of generating helpful and high-quality responses while maintaining customizability. Experiments show that SteerLM trained on open source datasets generates responses that are preferred by human and automatic evaluators to many state-of-the-art baselines trained with RLHF while being much easier to train. Try SteerLM at https://huggingface.co/nvidia/SteerLM-llama2-13B
In this work, we provide a recipe for training machine translation models in a limited resource setting by leveraging synthetic target data generated using a large pre-trained model. We show that consistently across different benchmarks in bilingual, multilingual, and speech translation setups, training models on synthetic targets outperforms training on the actual ground-truth data. This performance gap grows bigger with increasing limits on the amount of available resources in the form of the size of the dataset and the number of parameters in the model. We also provide preliminary analysis into whether this boost in performance is linked to ease of optimization or more deterministic nature of the predictions, and whether this paradigm leads to better out-of-distribution performance across different testing domains.
Large decoder-only language models (LMs) can be largely improved in terms of perplexity by retrieval (e.g., RETRO), but its impact on text generation quality and downstream task accuracy is unclear. Thus, it is still an open question: shall we pretrain large autoregressive LMs with retrieval? To answer it, we perform a comprehensive study on a scalable pre-trained retrieval-augmented LM (i.e., RETRO) compared with standard GPT and retrieval-augmented GPT incorporated at fine-tuning or inference stages. We first provide the recipe to reproduce RETRO up to 9.5B parameters while retrieving a text corpus with 330B tokens. Based on that, we have the following novel findings: i) RETRO outperforms GPT on text generation with much less degeneration (i.e., repetition), moderately higher factual accuracy, and slightly lower toxicity with a nontoxic retrieval database. ii) On the LM Evaluation Harness benchmark, RETRO largely outperforms GPT on knowledge-intensive tasks, but is on par with GPT on other tasks. Furthermore, we introduce a simple variant of the model, RETRO++, which largely improves open-domain QA results of original RETRO (e.g., EM score +8.6 on Natural Question) and significantly outperforms retrieval-augmented GPT across different model sizes. Our findings highlight the promising direction of pretraining autoregressive LMs with retrieval as future foundation models. We release our implementation at: https://github.com/NVIDIA/Megatron-LM#retro
General translation models often still struggle to generate accurate translations in specialized domains. To guide machine translation practitioners and characterize the effectiveness of domain adaptation methods under different data availability scenarios, we conduct an in-depth empirical exploration of monolingual and parallel data approaches to domain adaptation of pre-trained, third-party, NMT models in settings where architecture change is impractical. We compare data centric adaptation methods in isolation and combination. We study method effectiveness in very low resource (8k parallel examples) and moderately low resource (46k parallel examples) conditions and propose an ensemble approach to alleviate reductions in original domain translation quality. Our work includes three domains: consumer electronic, clinical, and biomedical and spans four language pairs - Zh-En, Ja-En, Es-En, and Ru-En. We also make concrete recommendations for achieving high in-domain performance and release our consumer electronic and medical domain datasets for all languages and make our code publicly available.
This paper provides an overview of NVIDIA NeMo's neural machine translation systems for the constrained data track of the WMT21 News and Biomedical Shared Translation Tasks. Our news task submissions for English-German (En-De) and English-Russian (En-Ru) are built on top of a baseline transformer-based sequence-to-sequence model. Specifically, we use a combination of 1) checkpoint averaging 2) model scaling 3) data augmentation with backtranslation and knowledge distillation from right-to-left factorized models 4) finetuning on test sets from previous years 5) model ensembling 6) shallow fusion decoding with transformer language models and 7) noisy channel re-ranking. Additionally, our biomedical task submission for English-Russian uses a biomedically biased vocabulary and is trained from scratch on news task data, medically relevant text curated from the news task dataset, and biomedical data provided by the shared task. Our news system achieves a sacreBLEU score of 39.5 on the WMT'20 En-De test set outperforming the best submission from last year's task of 38.8. Our biomedical task Ru-En and En-Ru systems reach BLEU scores of 43.8 and 40.3 respectively on the WMT'20 Biomedical Task Test set, outperforming the previous year's best submissions.
* WMT'21 news and biomedical shared task submission
In the English speech-to-text (STT) machine learning task, acoustic models are conventionally trained on uncased Latin characters, and any necessary orthography (such as capitalization, punctuation, and denormalization of non-standard words) is imputed by separate post-processing models. This adds complexity and limits performance, as many formatting tasks benefit from semantic information present in the acoustic signal but absent in transcription. Here we propose a new STT task: end-to-end neural transcription with fully formatted text for target labels. We present baseline Conformer-based models trained on a corpus of 5,000 hours of professionally transcribed earnings calls, achieving a CER of 1.7. As a contribution to the STT research community, we release the corpus free for non-commercial use at https://datasets.kensho.com/datasets/scribe.
* 5 pages, 1 figure. Submitted to INTERSPEECH 2021
NeMo (Neural Modules) is a Python framework-agnostic toolkit for creating AI applications through re-usability, abstraction, and composition. NeMo is built around neural modules, conceptual blocks of neural networks that take typed inputs and produce typed outputs. Such modules typically represent data layers, encoders, decoders, language models, loss functions, or methods of combining activations. NeMo makes it easy to combine and re-use these building blocks while providing a level of semantic correctness checking via its neural type system. The toolkit comes with extendable collections of pre-built modules for automatic speech recognition and natural language processing. Furthermore, NeMo provides built-in support for distributed training and mixed precision on latest NVIDIA GPUs. NeMo is open-source https://github.com/NVIDIA/NeMo
We propose NovoGrad, a first-order stochastic gradient method with layer-wise gradient normalization via second moment estimators and with decoupled weight decay for a better regularization. The method requires half as much memory as Adam/AdamW. We evaluated NovoGrad on the diverse set of problems, including image classification, speech recognition, neural machine translation and language modeling. On these problems, NovoGrad performed equal to or better than SGD and Adam/AdamW. Empirically we show that NovoGrad (1) is very robust during the initial training phase and does not require learning rate warm-up, (2) works well with the same learning rate policy for different problems, and (3) generally performs better than other optimizers for very large batch sizes