Error correction techniques have been used to refine the output sentences from automatic speech recognition (ASR) models and achieve a lower word error rate (WER). Previous works usually adopt end-to-end models and has strong dependency on Pseudo Paired Data and Original Paired Data. But when only pre-training on Pseudo Paired Data, previous models have negative effect on correction. While fine-tuning on Original Paired Data, the source side data must be transcribed by a well-trained ASR model, which takes a lot of time and not universal. In this paper, we propose UCorrect, an unsupervised Detector-Generator-Selector framework for ASR Error Correction. UCorrect has no dependency on the training data mentioned before. The whole procedure is first to detect whether the character is erroneous, then to generate some candidate characters and finally to select the most confident one to replace the error character. Experiments on the public AISHELL-1 dataset and WenetSpeech dataset show the effectiveness of UCorrect for ASR error correction: 1) it achieves significant WER reduction, achieves 6.83\% even without fine-tuning and 14.29\% after fine-tuning; 2) it outperforms the popular NAR correction models by a large margin with a competitive low latency; and 3) it is an universal method, as it reduces all WERs of the ASR model with different decoding strategies and reduces all WERs of ASR models trained on different scale datasets.
Instruction tuning is crucial for enabling Language Learning Models (LLMs) in responding to human instructions. The quality of instruction pairs used for tuning greatly affects the performance of LLMs. However, the manual creation of high-quality instruction datasets is costly, leading to the adoption of automatic generation of instruction pairs by LLMs as a popular alternative in the training of open-source LLMs. To ensure the high quality of LLM-generated instruction datasets, several approaches have been proposed. Nevertheless, existing methods either compromise dataset integrity by filtering a large proportion of samples, or are unsuitable for industrial applications. In this paper, instead of discarding low-quality samples, we propose CoachLM, a novel approach to enhance the quality of instruction datasets through automatic revisions on samples in the dataset. CoachLM is trained from the samples revised by human experts and significantly increases the proportion of high-quality samples in the dataset from 17.7% to 78.9%. The effectiveness of CoachLM is further assessed on various real-world instruction test sets. The results show that CoachLM improves the instruction-following capabilities of the instruction-tuned LLM by an average of 29.9%, which even surpasses larger LLMs with nearly twice the number of parameters. Furthermore, CoachLM is successfully deployed in a data management system for LLMs at Huawei, resulting in an efficiency improvement of up to 20% in the cleaning of 40k real-world instruction pairs. We release the training data and code of CoachLM (https://github.com/lunyiliu/CoachLM).
We introduce the submissions of the NJUNLP team to the WMT 2023 Quality Estimation (QE) shared task. Our team submitted predictions for the English-German language pair on all two sub-tasks: (i) sentence- and word-level quality prediction; and (ii) fine-grained error span detection. This year, we further explore pseudo data methods for QE based on NJUQE framework (https://github.com/NJUNLP/njuqe). We generate pseudo MQM data using parallel data from the WMT translation task. We pre-train the XLMR large model on pseudo QE data, then fine-tune it on real QE data. At both stages, we jointly learn sentence-level scores and word-level tags. Empirically, we conduct experiments to find the key hyper-parameters that improve the performance. Technically, we propose a simple method that covert the word-level outputs to fine-grained error span results. Overall, our models achieved the best results in English-German for both word-level and fine-grained error span detection sub-tasks by a considerable margin.
To translate well, machine translation (MT) systems and general-purposed language models (LMs) need a deep understanding of both source and target languages and cultures. Therefore, idioms, with their non-compositional nature, pose particular challenges for Transformer-based systems, as literal translations often miss the intended meaning. Traditional methods, which replace idioms using existing knowledge bases (KBs), often lack scale and context awareness. Addressing these challenges, our approach prioritizes context awareness and scalability, allowing for offline storage of idioms in a manageable KB size. This ensures efficient serving with smaller models and provides a more comprehensive understanding of idiomatic expressions. We introduce a multilingual idiom KB (IdiomKB) developed using large LMs to address this. This KB facilitates better translation by smaller models, such as BLOOMZ (7.1B), Alpaca (7B), and InstructGPT (6.7B), by retrieving idioms' figurative meanings. We present a novel, GPT-4-powered metric for human-aligned evaluation, demonstrating that IdiomKB considerably boosts model performance. Human evaluations further validate our KB's quality.
Despite the subjective nature of semantic textual similarity (STS) and pervasive disagreements in STS annotation, existing benchmarks have used averaged human ratings as the gold standard. Averaging masks the true distribution of human opinions on examples of low agreement, and prevents models from capturing the semantic vagueness that the individual ratings represent. In this work, we introduce USTS, the first Uncertainty-aware STS dataset with ~15,000 Chinese sentence pairs and 150,000 labels, to study collective human opinions in STS. Analysis reveals that neither a scalar nor a single Gaussian fits a set of observed judgements adequately. We further show that current STS models cannot capture the variance caused by human disagreement on individual instances, but rather reflect the predictive confidence over the aggregate dataset.
Cross-lingual Machine Translation (MT) quality estimation plays a crucial role in evaluating translation performance. GEMBA, the first MT quality assessment metric based on Large Language Models (LLMs), employs one-step prompting to achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) in system-level MT quality estimation; however, it lacks segment-level analysis. In contrast, Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompting outperforms one-step prompting by offering improved reasoning and explainability. In this paper, we introduce Knowledge-Prompted Estimator (KPE), a CoT prompting method that combines three one-step prompting techniques, including perplexity, token-level similarity, and sentence-level similarity. This method attains enhanced performance for segment-level estimation compared with previous deep learning models and one-step prompting approaches. Furthermore, supplementary experiments on word-level visualized alignment demonstrate that our KPE method significantly improves token alignment compared with earlier models and provides better interpretability for MT quality estimation. Code will be released upon publication.
Directly training a document-to-document (Doc2Doc) neural machine translation (NMT) via Transformer from scratch, especially on small datasets usually fails to converge. Our dedicated probing tasks show that 1) both the absolute position and relative position information gets gradually weakened or even vanished once it reaches the upper encoder layers, and 2) the vanishing of absolute position information in encoder output causes the training failure of Doc2Doc NMT. To alleviate this problem, we propose a position-aware Transformer (P-Transformer) to enhance both the absolute and relative position information in both self-attention and cross-attention. Specifically, we integrate absolute positional information, i.e., position embeddings, into the query-key pairs both in self-attention and cross-attention through a simple yet effective addition operation. Moreover, we also integrate relative position encoding in self-attention. The proposed P-Transformer utilizes sinusoidal position encoding and does not require any task-specified position embedding, segment embedding, or attention mechanism. Through the above methods, we build a Doc2Doc NMT model with P-Transformer, which ingests the source document and completely generates the target document in a sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) way. In addition, P-Transformer can be applied to seq2seq-based document-to-sentence (Doc2Sent) and sentence-to-sentence (Sent2Sent) translation. Extensive experimental results of Doc2Doc NMT show that P-Transformer significantly outperforms strong baselines on widely-used 9 document-level datasets in 7 language pairs, covering small-, middle-, and large-scales, and achieves a new state-of-the-art. Experimentation on discourse phenomena shows that our Doc2Doc NMT models improve the translation quality in both BLEU and discourse coherence. We make our code available on Github.
However, current autoregressive approaches suffer from high latency. In this paper, we focus on non-autoregressive translation (NAT) for this problem for its efficiency advantage. We identify that current constrained NAT models, which are based on iterative editing, do not handle low-frequency constraints well. To this end, we propose a plug-in algorithm for this line of work, i.e., Aligned Constrained Training (ACT), which alleviates this problem by familiarizing the model with the source-side context of the constraints. Experiments on the general and domain datasets show that our model improves over the backbone constrained NAT model in constraint preservation and translation quality, especially for rare constraints.
Autoregressive (AR) and Non-autoregressive (NAR) models have their own superiority on the performance and latency, combining them into one model may take advantage of both. Current combination frameworks focus more on the integration of multiple decoding paradigms with a unified generative model, e.g. Masked Language Model. However, the generalization can be harmful to the performance due to the gap between training objective and inference. In this paper, we aim to close the gap by preserving the original objective of AR and NAR under a unified framework. Specifically, we propose the Directional Transformer (Diformer) by jointly modelling AR and NAR into three generation directions (left-to-right, right-to-left and straight) with a newly introduced direction variable, which works by controlling the prediction of each token to have specific dependencies under that direction. The unification achieved by direction successfully preserves the original dependency assumption used in AR and NAR, retaining both generalization and performance. Experiments on 4 WMT benchmarks demonstrate that Diformer outperforms current united-modelling works with more than 1.5 BLEU points for both AR and NAR decoding, and is also competitive to the state-of-the-art independent AR and NAR models.