Federated learning (FL) leverages data distributed at the edge of the network to enable intelligent applications. The efficiency of FL can be improved by using over-the-air computation (AirComp) technology in the process of gradient aggregation. In this paper, we propose a relay-assisted large-scale FL framework, and investigate the device scheduling problem in relay-assisted FL systems under the constraints of power consumption and mean squared error (MSE). we formulate a joint device scheduling, and power allocation problem to maximize the number of scheduled devices. We solve the resultant non-convex optimization problem by transforming the optimization problem into multiple sparse optimization problems. By the proposed device scheduling algorithm, these sparse sub-problems are solved and the maximum number of federated learning edge devices is obtained. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme as compared with other benchmark schemes.
In this paper, we investigate a state-of-the-art reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)-assisted spatial scattering modulation (SSM) scheme for millimeter-wave (mmWave) systems, where a more practical scenario that the RIS is near the transmitter while the receiver is far from RIS is considered. To this end, the line-of-sight (LoS) and non-LoS links are utilized in the transmitter-RIS and RIS-receiver channels, respectively. By employing the maximum likelihood detector at the receiver, the conditional pairwise error probability (CPEP) expression for the RIS-SSM scheme is derived under the two scenarios that the received beam demodulation is correct or not. Furthermore, the union upper bound of average bit error probability (ABEP) is obtained based on the CPEP expression. Finally, the derivation results are exhaustively validated by the Monte Carlo simulations.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2307.14662
This paper investigates the reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) assisted spatial scattering modulation (SSM) scheme for millimeter-wave (mmWave) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, in which line-of-sight (LoS) and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) paths are respectively considered in the transmitter-RIS and RIS-receiver channels. Based on the maximum likelihood detector, the conditional pairwise error probability (CPEP) expression for the RIS-SSM scheme is derived under the two cases of received beam correct and demodulation error. Furthermore, we derive the closed-form expressions of the unconditional pairwise error probability (UPEP) by employing two different methods: the probability density function and the moment-generating function expressions with a descending order of scatterer gains. To provide more useful insights, we derive the asymptotic UPEP and the diversity gain of the RIS-SSM scheme in the high SNR region. Depending on UPEP and the corresponding Euclidean distance, we get the union upper bound of the average bit error probability (ABEP). A new framework for ergodic capacity analysis is also provided to acquire the proposed system's effective capacity. Finally, all derivation results are validated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, revealing that the proposed RIS-SSM scheme outperforms the benchmarks in terms of reliability.
In this paper, we investigated the downlink transmission problem of a cognitive radio network (CRN) equipped with a novel transmissive reconfigurable intelligent surface (TRIS) transmitter. In order to achieve low power consumption and high-rate multi-streams communication, time-modulated arrays (TMA) is implemented and users access the network using rate splitting multiple access (RSMA). With such a network framework, a multi-objective optimization problem with joint design of the precoding matrix and the common stream rate is constructed to achieve higher energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE). Since the objective function is a non-convex fractional function, we proposed a joint optimization algorithm based on difference-of-convex (DC) programming and successive convex approximation (SCA). Numerical results show that under this framework the proposed algorithm can considerably improve and balance the EE and SE.
The cellular network coexisting with device-to-device (D2D) communications has been studied extensively. Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) are promising technologies for the evolution of 5G, 6G and beyond. Besides, sparse code multiple access (SCMA) is considered suitable for next-generation wireless network in code-domain NOMA. In this paper, we consider the RIS-aided uplink SCMA cellular network simultaneously with D2D users. We formulate the optimization problem which aims to maximize the cellular sum-rate by jointly designing D2D users resource block (RB) association, the transmitted power for both cellular users and D2D users, and the phase shifts at the RIS. The power limitation and users communication requirements are considered. The problem is non-convex, and it is challenging to solve it directly. To handle this optimization problem, we propose an efficient iterative algorithm based on block coordinate descent (BCD) method. The original problem is decoupled into three subproblems to solve separately. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the sum-rate performance over various schemes.
Multi-tier computing can enhance the task computation by multi-tier computing nodes. In this paper, we propose a cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) aided computing system by deploying multi-tier computing nodes to improve the computation performance. At first, we investigate the computational latency and the total energy consumption for task computation, regarded as total cost. Then, we formulate a total cost minimization problem to design the bandwidth allocation and task allocation, while considering realistic heterogenous delay requirements of the computational tasks. Due to the binary task allocation variable, the formulated optimization problem is nonconvex. Therefore, we solve the bandwidth allocation and task allocation problem by decoupling the original optimization problem into bandwidth allocation and task allocation subproblems. As the bandwidth allocation problem is a convex optimization problem, we first determine the bandwidth allocation for given task allocation strategy, followed by conceiving the traditional convex optimization strategy to obtain the bandwidth allocation solution. Based on the asymptotic property of received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) under the cell-free massive MIMO setting and bandwidth allocation solution, we formulate a dual problem to solve the task allocation subproblem by relaxing the binary constraint with Lagrange partial relaxation for heterogenous task delay requirements. At last, simulation results are provided to demonstrate that our proposed task offloading scheme performs better than the benchmark schemes, where the minimum-cost optimal offloading strategy for heterogeneous delay requirements of the computational tasks may be controlled by the asymptotic property of the received SINR in our proposed cell-free massive MIMO-aided multi-tier computing systems.
Hierarchical Federated Learning (HFL) is a distributed machine learning paradigm tailored for multi-tiered computation architectures, which supports massive access of devices' models simultaneously. To enable efficient HFL, it is crucial to design suitable incentive mechanisms to ensure that devices actively participate in local training. However, there are few studies on incentive mechanism design for HFL. In this paper, we design two-level incentive mechanisms for the HFL with a two-tiered computing structure to encourage the participation of entities in each tier in the HFL training. In the lower-level game, we propose a coalition formation game to joint optimize the edge association and bandwidth allocation problem, and obtain efficient coalition partitions by the proposed preference rule, which can be proven to be stable by exact potential game. In the upper-level game, we design the Stackelberg game algorithm, which not only determines the optimal number of edge aggregations for edge servers to maximize their utility, but also optimize the unit reward provided for the edge aggregation performance to ensure the interests of cloud servers. Furthermore, numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithms can achieve better performance than the benchmark schemes.
With the development of next-generation wireless networks, the Internet of Things (IoT) is evolving towards the intelligent IoT (iIoT), where intelligent applications usually have stringent delay and jitter requirements. In order to provide low-latency services to heterogeneous users in the emerging iIoT, multi-tier computing was proposed by effectively combining edge computing and fog computing. More specifically, multi-tier computing systems compensate for cloud computing through task offloading and dispersing computing tasks to multi-tier nodes along the continuum from the cloud to things. In this paper, we investigate key techniques and directions for wireless communications and resource allocation approaches to enable task offloading in multi-tier computing systems. A multi-tier computing model, with its main functionality and optimization methods, is presented in details. We hope that this paper will serve as a valuable reference and guide to the theoretical, algorithmic, and systematic opportunities of multi-tier computing towards next-generation wireless networks.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is expected to revolutionize the existing integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system and promise a more flexible joint design. Nevertheless, the existing works on ISAC mainly focus on exploring the performance of both functionalities simultaneously during the entire considered period, which may ignore the practical asymmetric sensing and communication requirements. In particular, always forcing sensing along with communication may make it is harder to balance between these two functionalities due to shared spectrum resources and limited transmit power. To address this issue, we propose a new integrated periodic sensing and communication mechanism for the UAV-enabled ISAC system to provide a more flexible trade-off between two integrated functionalities. Specifically, the system achievable rate is maximized via jointly optimizing UAV trajectory, user association, target sensing selection, and transmit beamforming, while meeting the sensing frequency and beam pattern gain requirement for the given targets. Despite that this problem is highly non-convex and involves closely coupled integer variables, we derive the closed-form optimal beamforming vector to dramatically reduce the complexity of beamforming design, and present a tight lower bound of the achievable rate to facilitate UAV trajectory design. Based on the above results, we propose a penalty-based algorithm to efficiently solve the considered problem. The optimal achievable rate and the optimal UAV location are analyzed under a special case of infinity number of antennas. Furthermore, we prove the structural symmetry between the optimal solutions in different ISAC frames without location constraints and propose an efficient algorithm for solving the problem with location constraints.
* 32 pages, This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible