The orthogonal delay-Doppler (DD) division multiplexing (ODDM) modulation has recently been proposed as a promising solution for ensuring reliable communications in high mobility scenarios. In this work, we investigate the time-frequency (TF) localization characteristics of the DD plane orthogonal pulse (DDOP), which is the prototype pulse of ODDM modulation. The TF localization characteristics examine how concentrated or spread out the energy of a pulse is in the joint TF domain. We first derive the TF localization metric, TF area (TFA), for the DDOP. Based on this result, we provide insights into the energy spread of the DDOP in the joint TF domain. Then, we delve into the potential advantages of the DDOP due to its energy spread, particularly in terms of leveraging both time and frequency diversities, and enabling high-resolution sensing. Furthermore, we determine the TFA for the recently proposed generalized design of the DDOP. Finally, we validate our analysis based on numerical results and show that the energy spread for the generalized design of the DDOP in the joint TF domain exhibits a step-wise increase as the duration of sub-pulses increases.
This study examines the coexistence of orthogonal time-frequency space (OTFS) modulation with current fourth- and fifth-generation (4G/5G) wireless communication systems that primarily use orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) waveforms. We first derive the input-output-relation (IOR) of OTFS when it coexists with an OFDM system while considering the impact of unequal lengths of the cyclic prefixes (CPs) in the OTFS signal. We show analytically that the inclusion of multiple CPs to the OTFS signal results in the effective sampled delay-Doppler (DD) domain channel response to be less sparse. We also show that the effective DD domain channel coefficients for OTFS in coexisting systems are influenced by the unequal lengths of the CPs. Subsequently, we propose an embedded pilot-aided channel estimation (CE) technique for OTFS in coexisting systems that leverages the derived IOR for accurate channel characterization. Using numerical results, we show that ignoring the impact of unequal lengths of the CPs during signal detection can degrade the bit error rate performance of OTFS in coexisting systems. We also show that the proposed CE technique for OTFS in coexisting systems outperforms the state-of-the-art threshold-based CE technique.
The problem of enabling the coexistence of heterogeneous services, e.g., different ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC) services and/or enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) services, in the uplink is studied. Each service has its own error probability and blocklength constraints and the longer transmission block suffers from heterogeneous interference. Due to the latency concern, the decoding of URLLC messages cannot leverage successive interference cancellation (SIC) and should always be performed before the decoding of eMBB messages. This can significantly degrade the achievable rates of URLLC users when the interference from other users is strong. To overcome this issue, we propose a new transmission scheme based on discrete signaling and treating interference as noise decoding, i.e., without SIC. Guided by the deterministic model, we provide a systematic way to construct discrete signaling for handling heterogeneous interference effectively. We demonstrate theoretically and numerically that the proposed scheme can perform close to the benchmark scheme based on capacity-achieving Gaussian signaling with the assumption of perfect SIC.
The recently proposed orthogonal delay-Doppler division multiplexing (ODDM) modulation, which is based on the new delay-Doppler (DD) domain orthogonal pulse (DDOP), is studied. A substantial benefit of the DDOP-based ODDM or general delay-Doppler domain multi-carrier (DDMC) modulation is that it achieves orthogonality with respect to the fine time and frequency resolutions of the DD domain. We first revisit the family of wireless channel models conceived for linear time-varying (LTV) channels, and then review the conventional multi-carrier (MC) modulation schemes and their design guidelines for both linear time-invariant (LTI) and LTV channels. Then we discuss the time-varying property of the LTV channels' DD domain impulse response and propose an impulse function based transmission strategy for equivalent sampled DD domain (ESDD) channels. Next, we take an in-depth look into the DDOP and the corresponding ODDM modulation to unveil its unique input-output relation for transmission over ESDD channels. Then, we point out that the conventional MC modulation design guidelines based on the Wely-Heisenberg (WH) frame theory can be relaxed without compromising its orthogonality or without violating the WH frame theory. More specifically, for a communication system having given bandwidth and duration, MC modulation signals can be designed based on a WH subset associated with sufficient (bi)orthogonality, which governs the (bi)orthogonality of the MC signal within the bandwidth and duration. This novel design guideline could potentially open up opportunities for developing future waveforms required by new applications such as communication systems associated with high delay and/or Doppler shifts, as well as integrated sensing and communications, etc.
Drawing inspiration from the advantages of intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRS) in wireless networks,this paper presents a novel design for intelligent omni surface (IOS) enabled integrated sensing and communications (ISAC). By harnessing the power of multi antennas and a multitude of elements, the dual-function base station (BS) and IOS collaborate to realize joint active and passive beamforming, enabling seamless 360-degree ISAC coverage. The objective is to maximize the minimum signal-tointerference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of multi-target sensing, while ensuring the multi-user multi-stream communications. To achieve this, a comprehensive optimization approach is employed, encompassing the design of radar receive vector, transmit beamforming matrix, and IOS transmissive and reflective coefficients. Due to the non-convex nature of the formulated problem, an auxiliary variable is introduced to transform it into a more tractable form. Consequently, the problem is decomposed into three subproblems based on the block coordinate descent algorithm. Semidefinite relaxation and successive convex approximation methods are leveraged to convert the sub-problem into a convex problem, while the iterative rank minimization algorithm and penalty function method ensure the equivalence. Furthermore,the scenario is extended to mode switching and time switching protocols. Simulation results validate the convergence and superior performance of the proposed algorithm compared to other benchmark algorithms.
This paper investigates the design of self-connected spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) codes. First, a termination method is proposed to reduce rate loss. Particularly, a single-side open SC-LDPC ensemble is introduced, which halves the rate loss of a conventional terminated SC-LDPC by reducing the number of check nodes. We further propose a self-connection method that allows reliable information to propagate from several directions to improve the decoding threshold. We demonstrate that the proposed ensembles not only achieve a better trade-off between rate loss and gap to capacity than several existing protograph SC-LDPC codes with short chain lengths but also exhibit threshold saturation behavior. Finite blocklength error performance is provided to exemplify the superiority of the proposed codes over conventional protograph SC-LDPC codes.
In this paper, we study the pulse shaping for delay-Doppler (DD) communications. We start with constructing a basis function in the DD domain following the properties of the Zak transform. Particularly, we show that the constructed basis functions are globally quasi-periodic while locally twisted-shifted, and their significance in time and frequency domains are then revealed. We further analyze the ambiguity function of the basis function, and show that fully localized ambiguity function can be achieved by constructing the basis function using periodic signals. More importantly, we prove that time and frequency truncating such basis functions naturally leads to delay and Doppler orthogonalities, if the truncating windows are orthogonal or periodic. Motivated by this, we propose a DD Nyquist pulse shaping scheme considering signals with periodicity. Finally, our conclusions are verified by using various orthogonal and periodic pulses.
The recently introduced maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding scheme called guessing random additive noise decoding (GRAND) has demonstrated a remarkably low time complexity in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. However, the complexity is not as low at low SNR regimes and low code rates. To mitigate this concern, we propose a scheme for a near-ML variant of GRAND called ordered reliability bits GRAND (or ORBGRAND), which divides codewords into segments based on the properties of the underlying code, generates sub-patterns for each segment consistent with the syndrome (thus reducing the number of inconsistent error patterns generated), and combines them in a near-ML order using two-level integer partitions of logistic weight. The numerical evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme, called segmented ORBGRAND, significantly reduces the average number of queries at any SNR regime. Moreover, the segmented ORBGRAND with abandonment also improves the error correction performance.
In this paper, we investigated the downlink transmission problem of a cognitive radio network (CRN) equipped with a novel transmissive reconfigurable intelligent surface (TRIS) transmitter. In order to achieve low power consumption and high-rate multi-streams communication, time-modulated arrays (TMA) is implemented and users access the network using rate splitting multiple access (RSMA). With such a network framework, a multi-objective optimization problem with joint design of the precoding matrix and the common stream rate is constructed to achieve higher energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE). Since the objective function is a non-convex fractional function, we proposed a joint optimization algorithm based on difference-of-convex (DC) programming and successive convex approximation (SCA). Numerical results show that under this framework the proposed algorithm can considerably improve and balance the EE and SE.
In this paper, we consider the downlink broadcast channel under heterogenous blocklength constraints, where each user experiences different interference statistics across its received symbols. Different from the homogeneous blocklength case, the strong users with short blocklength transmitted symbol blocks usually cannot wait to receive the entire transmission frame and perform successive interference cancellation (SIC) owing to their stringent latency requirements. Even if SIC is feasible, it may not be perfect under finite blocklength constraints. To cope with the heterogeneity in latency and reliability requirements, we propose a practical downlink transmission scheme with discrete signaling and single-user decoding, i.e., without SIC. In addition, we derive the finite blocklength achievable rate and use it for guiding the design of channel coding and modulations. Both achievable rate and error probability simulation show that the proposed scheme can operate close to the benchmark scheme which assumes capacity-achieving signaling and perfect SIC.