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Jiwen Lu

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DriveDreamer: Towards Real-world-driven World Models for Autonomous Driving

Sep 18, 2023
Xiaofeng Wang, Zheng Zhu, Guan Huang, Xinze Chen, Jiwen Lu

World models, especially in autonomous driving, are trending and drawing extensive attention due to their capacity for comprehending driving environments. The established world model holds immense potential for the generation of high-quality driving videos, and driving policies for safe maneuvering. However, a critical limitation in relevant research lies in its predominant focus on gaming environments or simulated settings, thereby lacking the representation of real-world driving scenarios. Therefore, we introduce DriveDreamer, a pioneering world model entirely derived from real-world driving scenarios. Regarding that modeling the world in intricate driving scenes entails an overwhelming search space, we propose harnessing the powerful diffusion model to construct a comprehensive representation of the complex environment. Furthermore, we introduce a two-stage training pipeline. In the initial phase, DriveDreamer acquires a deep understanding of structured traffic constraints, while the subsequent stage equips it with the ability to anticipate future states. The proposed DriveDreamer is the first world model established from real-world driving scenarios. We instantiate DriveDreamer on the challenging nuScenes benchmark, and extensive experiments verify that DriveDreamer empowers precise, controllable video generation that faithfully captures the structural constraints of real-world traffic scenarios. Additionally, DriveDreamer enables the generation of realistic and reasonable driving policies, opening avenues for interaction and practical applications.

* Project Page: 
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Introspective Deep Metric Learning

Sep 11, 2023
Chengkun Wang, Wenzhao Zheng, Zheng Zhu, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

This paper proposes an introspective deep metric learning (IDML) framework for uncertainty-aware comparisons of images. Conventional deep metric learning methods focus on learning a discriminative embedding to describe the semantic features of images, which ignore the existence of uncertainty in each image resulting from noise or semantic ambiguity. Training without awareness of these uncertainties causes the model to overfit the annotated labels during training and produce unsatisfactory judgments during inference. Motivated by this, we argue that a good similarity model should consider the semantic discrepancies with awareness of the uncertainty to better deal with ambiguous images for more robust training. To achieve this, we propose to represent an image using not only a semantic embedding but also an accompanying uncertainty embedding, which describes the semantic characteristics and ambiguity of an image, respectively. We further propose an introspective similarity metric to make similarity judgments between images considering both their semantic differences and ambiguities. The gradient analysis of the proposed metric shows that it enables the model to learn at an adaptive and slower pace to deal with the uncertainty during training. The proposed IDML framework improves the performance of deep metric learning through uncertainty modeling and attains state-of-the-art results on the widely used CUB-200-2011, Cars196, and Stanford Online Products datasets for image retrieval and clustering. We further provide an in-depth analysis of our framework to demonstrate the effectiveness and reliability of IDML. Code:

* Accepted to T-PAMI. Code is available at: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2205.04449 
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PointOcc: Cylindrical Tri-Perspective View for Point-based 3D Semantic Occupancy Prediction

Aug 31, 2023
Sicheng Zuo, Wenzhao Zheng, Yuanhui Huang, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

Semantic segmentation in autonomous driving has been undergoing an evolution from sparse point segmentation to dense voxel segmentation, where the objective is to predict the semantic occupancy of each voxel in the concerned 3D space. The dense nature of the prediction space has rendered existing efficient 2D-projection-based methods (e.g., bird's eye view, range view, etc.) ineffective, as they can only describe a subspace of the 3D scene. To address this, we propose a cylindrical tri-perspective view to represent point clouds effectively and comprehensively and a PointOcc model to process them efficiently. Considering the distance distribution of LiDAR point clouds, we construct the tri-perspective view in the cylindrical coordinate system for more fine-grained modeling of nearer areas. We employ spatial group pooling to maintain structural details during projection and adopt 2D backbones to efficiently process each TPV plane. Finally, we obtain the features of each point by aggregating its projected features on each of the processed TPV planes without the need for any post-processing. Extensive experiments on both 3D occupancy prediction and LiDAR segmentation benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed PointOcc achieves state-of-the-art performance with much faster speed. Specifically, despite only using LiDAR, PointOcc significantly outperforms all other methods, including multi-modal methods, with a large margin on the OpenOccupancy benchmark. Code:

* Code is available at 
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Take-A-Photo: 3D-to-2D Generative Pre-training of Point Cloud Models

Jul 27, 2023
Ziyi Wang, Xumin Yu, Yongming Rao, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

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With the overwhelming trend of mask image modeling led by MAE, generative pre-training has shown a remarkable potential to boost the performance of fundamental models in 2D vision. However, in 3D vision, the over-reliance on Transformer-based backbones and the unordered nature of point clouds have restricted the further development of generative pre-training. In this paper, we propose a novel 3D-to-2D generative pre-training method that is adaptable to any point cloud model. We propose to generate view images from different instructed poses via the cross-attention mechanism as the pre-training scheme. Generating view images has more precise supervision than its point cloud counterpart, thus assisting 3D backbones to have a finer comprehension of the geometrical structure and stereoscopic relations of the point cloud. Experimental results have proved the superiority of our proposed 3D-to-2D generative pre-training over previous pre-training methods. Our method is also effective in boosting the performance of architecture-oriented approaches, achieving state-of-the-art performance when fine-tuning on ScanObjectNN classification and ShapeNetPart segmentation tasks. Code is available at

* Accepted to ICCV 2023, project page: 
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Embodied Task Planning with Large Language Models

Jul 04, 2023
Zhenyu Wu, Ziwei Wang, Xiuwei Xu, Jiwen Lu, Haibin Yan

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Equipping embodied agents with commonsense is important for robots to successfully complete complex human instructions in general environments. Recent large language models (LLM) can embed rich semantic knowledge for agents in plan generation of complex tasks, while they lack the information about the realistic world and usually yield infeasible action sequences. In this paper, we propose a TAsk Planing Agent (TaPA) in embodied tasks for grounded planning with physical scene constraint, where the agent generates executable plans according to the existed objects in the scene by aligning LLMs with the visual perception models. Specifically, we first construct a multimodal dataset containing triplets of indoor scenes, instructions and action plans, where we provide the designed prompts and the list of existing objects in the scene for GPT-3.5 to generate a large number of instructions and corresponding planned actions. The generated data is leveraged for grounded plan tuning of pre-trained LLMs. During inference, we discover the objects in the scene by extending open-vocabulary object detectors to multi-view RGB images collected in different achievable locations. Experimental results show that the generated plan from our TaPA framework can achieve higher success rate than LLaVA and GPT-3.5 by a sizable margin, which indicates the practicality of embodied task planning in general and complex environments.

* Project Page: 
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Towards Accurate Data-free Quantization for Diffusion Models

Jun 07, 2023
Changyuan Wang, Ziwei Wang, Xiuwei Xu, Yansong Tang, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

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In this paper, we propose an accurate data-free post-training quantization framework of diffusion models (ADP-DM) for efficient image generation. Conventional data-free quantization methods learn shared quantization functions for tensor discretization regardless of the generation timesteps, while the activation distribution differs significantly across various timesteps. The calibration images are acquired in random timesteps which fail to provide sufficient information for generalizable quantization function learning. Both issues cause sizable quantization errors with obvious image generation performance degradation. On the contrary, we design group-wise quantization functions for activation discretization in different timesteps and sample the optimal timestep for informative calibration image generation, so that our quantized diffusion model can reduce the discretization errors with negligible computational overhead. Specifically, we partition the timesteps according to the importance weights of quantization functions in different groups, which are optimized by differentiable search algorithms. We also select the optimal timestep for calibration image generation by structural risk minimizing principle in order to enhance the generalization ability in the deployment of quantized diffusion model. Extensive experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art post-training quantization of diffusion model by a sizable margin with similar computational cost.

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DSPDet3D: Dynamic Spatial Pruning for 3D Small Object Detection

May 05, 2023
Xiuwei Xu, Zhihao Sun, Ziwei Wang, Hongmin Liu, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

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In this paper, we propose a new detection framework for 3D small object detection. Although deep learning-based 3D object detection methods have achieved great success in recent years, current methods still struggle on small objects due to weak geometric information. With in-depth study, we find increasing the spatial resolution of the feature maps significantly boosts the performance of 3D small object detection. And more interestingly, though the computational overhead increases dramatically with resolution, the growth mainly comes from the upsampling operation of the decoder. Inspired by this, we present a high-resolution multi-level detector with dynamic spatial pruning named DSPDet3D, which detects objects from large to small by iterative upsampling and meanwhile prunes the spatial representation of the scene at regions where there is no smaller object to be detected in higher resolution. As the 3D detector only needs to predict sparse bounding boxes, pruning a large amount of uninformative features does not degrade the detection performance but significantly reduces the computational cost of upsampling. In this way, our DSPDet3D achieves high accuracy on small object detection while requiring even less memory footprint and inference time. On ScanNet and TO-SCENE dataset, our method improves the detection performance of small objects to a new level while achieving leading inference speed among all mainstream indoor 3D object detection methods.

* Code is available at: 
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Dense Hybrid Proposal Modulation for Lane Detection

Apr 28, 2023
Yuejian Wu, Linqing Zhao, Jiwen Lu, Haibin Yan

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In this paper, we present a dense hybrid proposal modulation (DHPM) method for lane detection. Most existing methods perform sparse supervision on a subset of high-scoring proposals, while other proposals fail to obtain effective shape and location guidance, resulting in poor overall quality. To address this, we densely modulate all proposals to generate topologically and spatially high-quality lane predictions with discriminative representations. Specifically, we first ensure that lane proposals are physically meaningful by applying single-lane shape and location constraints. Benefitting from the proposed proposal-to-label matching algorithm, we assign each proposal a target ground truth lane to efficiently learn from spatial layout priors. To enhance the generalization and model the inter-proposal relations, we diversify the shape difference of proposals matching the same ground-truth lane. In addition to the shape and location constraints, we design a quality-aware classification loss to adaptively supervise each positive proposal so that the discriminative power can be further boosted. Our DHPM achieves very competitive performances on four popular benchmark datasets. Moreover, we consistently outperform the baseline model on most metrics without introducing new parameters and reducing inference speed.

* Accepted by T-CSVT 
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LRRNet: A Novel Representation Learning Guided Fusion Network for Infrared and Visible Images

Apr 16, 2023
Hui Li, Tianyang Xu, Xiao-Jun Wu, Jiwen Lu, Josef Kittler

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Deep learning based fusion methods have been achieving promising performance in image fusion tasks. This is attributed to the network architecture that plays a very important role in the fusion process. However, in general, it is hard to specify a good fusion architecture, and consequently, the design of fusion networks is still a black art, rather than science. To address this problem, we formulate the fusion task mathematically, and establish a connection between its optimal solution and the network architecture that can implement it. This approach leads to a novel method proposed in the paper of constructing a lightweight fusion network. It avoids the time-consuming empirical network design by a trial-and-test strategy. In particular we adopt a learnable representation approach to the fusion task, in which the construction of the fusion network architecture is guided by the optimisation algorithm producing the learnable model. The low-rank representation (LRR) objective is the foundation of our learnable model. The matrix multiplications, which are at the heart of the solution are transformed into convolutional operations, and the iterative process of optimisation is replaced by a special feed-forward network. Based on this novel network architecture, an end-to-end lightweight fusion network is constructed to fuse infrared and visible light images. Its successful training is facilitated by a detail-to-semantic information loss function proposed to preserve the image details and to enhance the salient features of the source images. Our experiments show that the proposed fusion network exhibits better fusion performance than the state-of-the-art fusion methods on public datasets. Interestingly, our network requires a fewer training parameters than other existing methods. The codes are available at

* 14 pages, 15 figures, 8 tables 
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Learning Accurate Performance Predictors for Ultrafast Automated Model Compression

Apr 13, 2023
Ziwei Wang, Jiwen Lu, Han Xiao, Shengyu Liu, Jie Zhou

In this paper, we propose an ultrafast automated model compression framework called SeerNet for flexible network deployment. Conventional non-differen-tiable methods discretely search the desirable compression policy based on the accuracy from exhaustively trained lightweight models, and existing differentiable methods optimize an extremely large supernet to obtain the required compressed model for deployment. They both cause heavy computational cost due to the complex compression policy search and evaluation process. On the contrary, we obtain the optimal efficient networks by directly optimizing the compression policy with an accurate performance predictor, where the ultrafast automated model compression for various computational cost constraint is achieved without complex compression policy search and evaluation. Specifically, we first train the performance predictor based on the accuracy from uncertain compression policies actively selected by efficient evolutionary search, so that informative supervision is provided to learn the accurate performance predictor with acceptable cost. Then we leverage the gradient that maximizes the predicted performance under the barrier complexity constraint for ultrafast acquisition of the desirable compression policy, where adaptive update stepsizes with momentum are employed to enhance optimality of the acquired pruning and quantization strategy. Compared with the state-of-the-art automated model compression methods, experimental results on image classification and object detection show that our method achieves competitive accuracy-complexity trade-offs with significant reduction of the search cost.

* Accepted to IJCV 
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