In the current landscape of pervasive smartphones and tablets, apps frequently exist across both platforms. Although apps share most graphic user interfaces (GUIs) and functionalities across phones and tablets, developers often rebuild from scratch for tablet versions, escalating costs and squandering existing design resources. Researchers are attempting to collect data and employ deep learning in automated GUIs development to enhance developers' productivity. There are currently several publicly accessible GUI page datasets for phones, but none for pairwise GUIs between phones and tablets. This poses a significant barrier to the employment of deep learning in automated GUI development. In this paper, we introduce the Papt dataset, a pioneering pairwise GUI dataset tailored for Android phones and tablets, encompassing 10,035 phone-tablet GUI page pairs sourced from 5,593 unique app pairs. We propose novel pairwise GUI collection approaches for constructing this dataset and delineate its advantages over currently prevailing datasets in the field. Through preliminary experiments on this dataset, we analyze the present challenges of utilizing deep learning in automated GUI development.
The burgeoning progress in the field of Large Language Models (LLMs) heralds significant benefits due to their unparalleled capacities. However, it is critical to acknowledge the potential misuse of these models, which could give rise to a spectrum of social and ethical dilemmas. Despite numerous preceding efforts centered around distinguishing synthetic text, most existing detection systems fail to identify data synthesized by the latest LLMs, such as ChatGPT and GPT-4. In response to this challenge, we introduce an unpretentious yet potent detection approach proficient in identifying synthetic text across a wide array of fields. Moreover, our detector demonstrates outstanding performance uniformly across various model architectures and decoding strategies. It also possesses the capability to identify text generated utilizing a potent detection-evasion technique. Our comprehensive research underlines our commitment to boosting the robustness and efficiency of machine-generated text detection mechanisms, particularly in the context of swiftly progressing and increasingly adaptive AI technologies.
Flowchart-grounded troubleshooting dialogue (FTD) systems, which follow the instructions of a flowchart to diagnose users' problems in specific domains (eg., vehicle, laptop), have been gaining research interest in recent years. However, collecting sufficient dialogues that are naturally grounded on flowcharts is costly, thus FTD systems are impeded by scarce training data. To mitigate the data sparsity issue, we propose a plan-based data augmentation (PlanDA) approach that generates diverse synthetic dialog data at scale by transforming concise flowchart into dialogues. Specifically, its generative model employs a variational-base framework with a hierarchical planning strategy that includes global and local latent planning variables. Experiments on the FloDial dataset show that synthetic dialogue produced by PlanDA improves the performance of downstream tasks, including flowchart path retrieval and response generation, in particular on the Out-of-Flowchart settings. In addition, further analysis demonstrate the quality of synthetic data generated by PlanDA in paths that are covered by current sample dialogues and paths that are not covered.
Dialogue systems have been widely applied in many scenarios and are now more powerful and ubiquitous than ever before. With large neural models and massive available data, current dialogue systems have access to more knowledge than any people in their life. However, current dialogue systems still do not perform at a human level. One major gap between conversational agents and humans lies in their abilities to be aware of social norms. The development of socially-aware dialogue systems is impeded due to the lack of resources. In this paper, we present the first socially-aware dialogue corpus - SocialDial, based on Chinese social culture. SocialDial consists of two parts: 1,563 multi-turn dialogues between two human speakers with fine-grained labels, and 4,870 synthetic conversations generated by ChatGPT. The human corpus covers five categories of social norms, which have 14 sub-categories in total. Specifically, it contains social factor annotations including social relation, context, social distance, and social norms. However, collecting sufficient socially-aware dialogues is costly. Thus, we harness the power of ChatGPT and devise an ontology-based synthetic data generation framework. This framework is able to generate synthetic data at scale. To ensure the quality of synthetic dialogues, we design several mechanisms for quality control during data collection. Finally, we evaluate our dataset using several pre-trained models, such as BERT and RoBERTa. Comprehensive empirical results based on state-of-the-art neural models demonstrate that modeling of social norms for dialogue systems is a promising research direction. To the best of our knowledge, SocialDial is the first socially-aware dialogue dataset that covers multiple social factors and has fine-grained labels.
Existing neural methods have shown great potentials towards generating informative text from structured tabular data as well as maintaining high content fidelity. However, few of them shed light on generating personalized expressions, which often requires well-aligned persona-table-text datasets that are difficult to obtain. To overcome these obstacles, we explore personalized table-to-text generation under a zero-shot setting, by assuming no well-aligned persona-table-text triples are required during training. To this end, we firstly collect a set of unpaired persona information and then propose a semi-supervised approach with contrastive persona distillation (S2P-CPD) to generate personalized context. Specifically, tabular data and persona information are firstly represented as latent variables separately. Then, we devise a latent space fusion technique to distill persona information into the table representation. Besides, a contrastive-based discriminator is employed to guarantee the style consistency between the generated context and its corresponding persona. Experimental results on two benchmarks demonstrate S2P-CPD's ability on keeping both content fidelity and personalized expressions.
Negotiation is one of the crucial abilities in human communication, and there has been a resurgent research interest in negotiation dialogue systems recently, which goal is to empower intelligent agents with such ability that can efficiently help humans resolve conflicts or reach beneficial agreements. Although there have been many explorations in negotiation dialogue systems, a systematic review of this task has to date remained notably absent. To this end, we aim to fill this gap by reviewing contemporary studies in the emerging field of negotiation dialogue systems, covering benchmarks, evaluations, and methodologies. Furthermore, we also discuss potential future directions, including multi-modal, multi-party, and cross-cultural negotiation scenarios. Our goal is to provide the community with a systematic overview of negotiation dialogue systems and to inspire future research.
Open-domain dialogue generation in natural language processing (NLP) is by default a pure-language task, which aims to satisfy human need for daily communication on open-ended topics by producing related and informative responses. In this paper, we point out that hidden images, named as visual impressions (VIs), can be explored from the text-only data to enhance dialogue understanding and help generate better responses. Besides, the semantic dependency between an dialogue post and its response is complicated, e.g., few word alignments and some topic transitions. Therefore, the visual impressions of them are not shared, and it is more reasonable to integrate the response visual impressions (RVIs) into the decoder, rather than the post visual impressions (PVIs). However, both the response and its RVIs are not given directly in the test process. To handle the above issues, we propose a framework to explicitly construct VIs based on pure-language dialogue datasets and utilize them for better dialogue understanding and generation. Specifically, we obtain a group of images (PVIs) for each post based on a pre-trained word-image mapping model. These PVIs are used in a co-attention encoder to get a post representation with both visual and textual information. Since the RVIs are not provided directly during testing, we design a cascade decoder that consists of two sub-decoders. The first sub-decoder predicts the content words in response, and applies the word-image mapping model to get those RVIs. Then, the second sub-decoder generates the response based on the post and RVIs. Experimental results on two open-domain dialogue datasets show that our proposed approach achieves superior performance over competitive baselines.
Being able to reply with a related, fluent, and informative response is an indispensable requirement for building high-quality conversational agents. In order to generate better responses, some approaches have been proposed, such as feeding extra information by collecting large-scale datasets with human annotations, designing neural conversational models (NCMs) with complex architecture and loss functions, or filtering out untrustworthy samples based on a dialogue attribute, e.g., Relatedness or Genericness. In this paper, we follow the third research branch and present a data filtering method for open-domain dialogues, which identifies untrustworthy samples from training data with a quality measure that linearly combines seven dialogue attributes. The attribute weights are obtained via Bayesian Optimization (BayesOpt) that aims to optimize an objective function for dialogue generation iteratively on the validation set. Then we score training samples with the quality measure, sort them in descending order, and filter out those at the bottom. Furthermore, to accelerate the "filter-train-evaluate" iterations involved in BayesOpt on large-scale datasets, we propose a training framework that integrates maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and negative training method (NEG). The training method updates parameters of a trained NCMs on two small sets with newly maintained and removed samples, respectively. Specifically, MLE is applied to maximize the log-likelihood of newly maintained samples, while NEG is used to minimize the log-likelihood of newly removed ones. Experimental results on two datasets show that our method can effectively identify untrustworthy samples, and NCMs trained on the filtered datasets achieve better performance.
In product description generation (PDG), the user-cared aspect is critical for the recommendation system, which can not only improve user's experiences but also obtain more clicks. High-quality customer reviews can be considered as an ideal source to mine user-cared aspects. However, in reality, a large number of new products (known as long-tailed commodities) cannot gather sufficient amount of customer reviews, which brings a big challenge in the product description generation task. Existing works tend to generate the product description solely based on item information, i.e., product attributes or title words, which leads to tedious contents and cannot attract customers effectively. To tackle this problem, we propose an adaptive posterior network based on Transformer architecture that can utilize user-cared information from customer reviews. Specifically, we first extend the self-attentive Transformer encoder to encode product titles and attributes. Then, we apply an adaptive posterior distillation module to utilize useful review information, which integrates user-cared aspects to the generation process. Finally, we apply a Transformer-based decoding phase with copy mechanism to automatically generate the product description. Besides, we also collect a large-scare Chinese product description dataset to support our work and further research in this field. Experimental results show that our model is superior to traditional generative models in both automatic indicators and human evaluation.