Sound event localization and detection (SELD) is a joint task of sound event detection (SED) and direction of arrival (DoA) estimation. SED mainly relies on temporal dependencies to distinguish different sound classes, while DoA estimation depends on spatial correlations to estimate source directions. To jointly optimize two subtasks, the SELD system should extract spatial correlations and model temporal dependencies simultaneously. However, numerous models mainly extract spatial correlations and model temporal dependencies separately. In this paper, the interdependence of spatial-temporal information in audio signals is exploited for simultaneous extraction to enhance the model performance. In response, a novel graph representation leveraging graph convolutional network (GCN) in non-Euclidean space is developed to extract spatial-temporal information concurrently. A sliding-window graph (SwG) module is designed based on the graph representation. It exploits sliding-windows with different sizes to learn temporal context information and dynamically constructs graph vertices in the frequency-channel (F-C) domain to capture spatial correlations. Furthermore, as the cornerstone of message passing, a robust Conv2dAgg function is proposed and embedded into the SwG module to aggregate the features of neighbor vertices. To improve the performance of SELD in a natural spatial acoustic environment, a general and efficient SwG-former model is proposed by integrating the SwG module with the Conformer. It exhibits superior performance in comparison to recent advanced SELD models. To further validate the generality and efficiency of the SwG-former, it is seamlessly integrated into the event-independent network version 2 (EINV2) called SwG-EINV2. The SwG-EINV2 surpasses the state-of-the-art (SOTA) methods under the same acoustic environment.
In this paper, we introduce a new approach for high-quality multi-exposure image fusion (MEF). We show that the fusion weights of an exposure can be encoded into a 1D lookup table (LUT), which takes pixel intensity value as input and produces fusion weight as output. We learn one 1D LUT for each exposure, then all the pixels from different exposures can query 1D LUT of that exposure independently for high-quality and efficient fusion. Specifically, to learn these 1D LUTs, we involve attention mechanism in various dimensions including frame, channel and spatial ones into the MEF task so as to bring us significant quality improvement over the state-of-the-art (SOTA). In addition, we collect a new MEF dataset consisting of 960 samples, 155 of which are manually tuned by professionals as ground-truth for evaluation. Our network is trained by this dataset in an unsupervised manner. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of all the newly proposed components, and results show that our approach outperforms the SOTA in our and another representative dataset SICE, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, our 1D LUT approach takes less than 4ms to run a 4K image on a PC GPU. Given its high quality, efficiency and robustness, our method has been shipped into millions of Android mobiles across multiple brands world-wide. Code is available at: https://github.com/Hedlen/MEFLUT.
Despite the high economic relevance of Foundation Industries, certain components like Reheating furnaces within their manufacturing chain are energy-intensive. Notable energy consumption reduction could be obtained by reducing the overall heating time in furnaces. Computer-integrated Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) powered control systems in furnaces could be enablers in achieving the Net-Zero goals in Foundation Industries for sustainable manufacturing. In this work, due to the infeasibility of achieving good quality data in scenarios like reheating furnaces, classical Hottel's zone method based computational model has been used to generate data for ML and Deep Learning (DL) based model training via regression. It should be noted that the zone method provides an elegant way to model the physical phenomenon of Radiative Heat Transfer (RHT), the dominating heat transfer mechanism in high-temperature processes inside heating furnaces. Using this data, an extensive comparison among a wide range of state-of-the-art, representative ML and DL methods has been made against their temperature prediction performances in varying furnace environments. Owing to their holistic balance among inference times and model performance, DL stands out among its counterparts. To further enhance the Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) generalization capability of the trained DL models, we propose a Physics-Informed Neural Network (PINN) by incorporating prior physical knowledge using a set of novel Energy-Balance regularizers. Our setup is a generic framework, is geometry-agnostic of the 3D structure of the underlying furnace, and as such could accommodate any standard ML regression model, to serve as a Digital Twin of the underlying physical processes, for transitioning Foundation Industries towards Industry 4.0.
Most medical dialogue systems assume that patients have clear goals (medicine querying, surgical operation querying, etc.) before medical consultation. However, in many real scenarios, due to the lack of medical knowledge, it is usually difficult for patients to determine clear goals with all necessary slots. In this paper, we identify this challenge as how to construct medical consultation dialogue systems to help patients clarify their goals. To mitigate this challenge, we propose a novel task and create a human-to-human mixed-type medical consultation dialogue corpus, termed MidMed, covering five dialogue types: task-oriented dialogue for diagnosis, recommendation, knowledge-grounded dialogue, QA, and chitchat. MidMed covers four departments (otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology, skin, and digestive system), with 8,175 dialogues. Furthermore, we build baselines on MidMed and propose an instruction-guiding medical dialogue generation framework, termed InsMed, to address this task. Experimental results show the effectiveness of InsMed.
Heterophily has been considered as an issue that hurts the performance of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). To address this issue, some existing work uses a graph-level weighted fusion of the information of multi-hop neighbors to include more nodes with homophily. However, the heterophily might differ among nodes, which requires to consider the local topology. Motivated by it, we propose to use the local similarity (LocalSim) to learn node-level weighted fusion, which can also serve as a plug-and-play module. For better fusion, we propose a novel and efficient Initial Residual Difference Connection (IRDC) to extract more informative multi-hop information. Moreover, we provide theoretical analysis on the effectiveness of LocalSim representing node homophily on synthetic graphs. Extensive evaluations over real benchmark datasets show that our proposed method, namely Local Similarity Graph Neural Network (LSGNN), can offer comparable or superior state-of-the-art performance on both homophilic and heterophilic graphs. Meanwhile, the plug-and-play model can significantly boost the performance of existing GNNs. Our code is provided at https://github.com/draym28/LSGNN.
Spiking neural network is a kind of neuromorphic computing which is believed to improve on the level of intelligence and provide advabtages for quantum computing. In this work, we address this issue by designing an optical spiking neural network and prove that it can be used to accelerate the speed of computation, especially on the combinatorial optimization problems. Here the spiking neural network is constructed by the antisymmetrically coupled degenerate optical parametric oscillator pulses and dissipative pulses. A nonlinear transfer function is chosen to mitigate amplitude inhomogeneities and destabilize the resulting local minima according to the dynamical behavior of spiking neurons. It is numerically proved that the spiking neural network-coherent Ising machines has excellent performance on combinatorial optimization problems, for which is expected to offer a new applications for neural computing and optical computing.
In recent years, pre-trained models have become dominant in most natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, in the area of Automated Essay Scoring (AES), pre-trained models such as BERT have not been properly used to outperform other deep learning models such as LSTM. In this paper, we introduce a novel multi-scale essay representation for BERT that can be jointly learned. We also employ multiple losses and transfer learning from out-of-domain essays to further improve the performance. Experiment results show that our approach derives much benefit from joint learning of multi-scale essay representation and obtains almost the state-of-the-art result among all deep learning models in the ASAP task. Our multi-scale essay representation also generalizes well to CommonLit Readability Prize data set, which suggests that the novel text representation proposed in this paper may be a new and effective choice for long-text tasks.
We present an unsupervised optical flow estimation method by proposing an adaptive pyramid sampling in the deep pyramid network. Specifically, in the pyramid downsampling, we propose an Content Aware Pooling (CAP) module, which promotes local feature gathering by avoiding cross region pooling, so that the learned features become more representative. In the pyramid upsampling, we propose an Adaptive Flow Upsampling (AFU) module, where cross edge interpolation can be avoided, producing sharp motion boundaries. Equipped with these two modules, our method achieves the best performance for unsupervised optical flow estimation on multiple leading benchmarks, including MPI-SIntel, KITTI 2012 and KITTI 2015. Particuarlly, we achieve EPE=1.5 on KITTI 2012 and F1=9.67% KITTI 2015, which outperform the previous state-of-the-art methods by 16.7% and 13.1%, respectively.