In the rapidly evolving domain of Natural Language Generation (NLG) evaluation, introducing Large Language Models (LLMs) has opened new avenues for assessing generated content quality, e.g., coherence, creativity, and context relevance. This survey aims to provide a thorough overview of leveraging LLMs for NLG evaluation, a burgeoning area that lacks a systematic analysis. We propose a coherent taxonomy for organizing existing LLM-based evaluation metrics, offering a structured framework to understand and compare these methods. Our detailed exploration includes critically assessing various LLM-based methodologies, as well as comparing their strengths and limitations in evaluating NLG outputs. By discussing unresolved challenges, including bias, robustness, domain-specificity, and unified evaluation, this survey seeks to offer insights to researchers and advocate for fairer and more advanced NLG evaluation techniques.
Aligning the recent large language models (LLMs) with computer vision models leads to large vision-language models (LVLMs), which have paved the way for zero-shot image reasoning tasks. However, LVLMs are usually trained on short high-level captions only referring to sparse focus regions in images. Such a ``tunnel vision'' limits LVLMs to exploring other relevant contexts in complex scenes. To address this challenge, we introduce Question-Driven Visual Exploration (QVix), a novel prompting strategy that enhances the exploratory capabilities of LVLMs in zero-shot reasoning tasks. QVix leverages LLMs' strong language prior to generate input-exploratory questions with more details than the original query, guiding LVLMs to explore visual content more comprehensively and uncover subtle or peripheral details. QVix enables a wider exploration of visual scenes, improving the LVLMs' reasoning accuracy and depth in tasks such as visual question answering and visual entailment. Our evaluations on various challenging zero-shot vision-language benchmarks, including ScienceQA and fine-grained visual classification, demonstrate that QVix significantly outperforms existing methods, highlighting its effectiveness in bridging the gap between complex visual data and LVLMs' exploratory abilities.
Large Language Models (LLMs) have ushered in a transformative era in the field of natural language processing, excelling in tasks related to text comprehension and generation. Nevertheless, they encounter difficulties when confronted with chaotic contexts (e.g., distractors rather than long irrelevant context), leading to the inadvertent omission of certain details within the chaotic context. In response to these challenges, we introduce the "Thread of Thought" (ThoT) strategy, which draws inspiration from human cognitive processes. ThoT systematically segments and analyzes extended contexts while adeptly selecting pertinent information. This strategy serves as a versatile "plug-and-play" module, seamlessly integrating with various LLMs and prompting techniques. In the experiments, we utilize the PopQA and EntityQ datasets, as well as a Multi-Turn Conversation Response dataset (MTCR) we collected, to illustrate that ThoT significantly improves reasoning performance compared to other prompting techniques.
Large language models (LLMs) have shown impressive in-context learning (ICL) ability in code generation. LLMs take a prompt consisting of requirement-code examples and a new requirement as input, and output new programs. Existing studies have found that ICL is highly dominated by the examples and thus arises research on example selection. However, existing approaches randomly select examples or only consider the textual similarity of requirements to retrieve, leading to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based selection approach named LAIL (LLM-Aware In-context Learning) for code generation. Given a candidate example, we exploit LLMs themselves to estimate it by considering the generation probabilities of ground-truth programs given a requirement and the example. We then label candidate examples as positive or negative through the probability feedback. Based on the labeled data, we import a contrastive learning objective to train an effective retriever that acquires the preference of LLMs in code generation. We apply LAIL to three LLMs and evaluate it on three representative datasets (e.g., MBJP, MBPP, and MBCPP). LATA outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by 11.58%, 6.89%, and 5.07% on CodeGen, and 4.38%, 2.85%, and 2.74% on GPT-3.5 in terms of Pass@1, respectively.
Reasoning presents a significant and challenging issue for Large Language Models (LLMs). The predominant focus of research has revolved around developing diverse prompting strategies to guide and structure the reasoning processes of LLMs. However, these approaches based on decoder-only causal language models often operate the input question in a single forward pass, potentially missing the rich, back-and-forth interactions inherent in human reasoning. Scant attention has been paid to a critical dimension, i.e., the input question itself embedded within the prompts. In response, we introduce a deceptively simple yet highly effective prompting strategy, termed question "re-reading". Drawing inspiration from human learning and problem-solving, re-reading entails revisiting the question information embedded within input prompts. This approach aligns seamlessly with the cognitive principle of reinforcement, enabling LLMs to extract deeper insights, identify intricate patterns, establish more nuanced connections, and ultimately enhance their reasoning capabilities across various tasks. Experiments conducted on a series of reasoning benchmarks serve to underscore the effectiveness and generality of our method. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that our approach seamlessly integrates with various language models, though-eliciting prompting methods, and ensemble techniques, further underscoring its versatility and compatibility in the realm of LLMs.
Developers introduce code clones to improve programming productivity. Many existing studies have achieved impressive performance in monolingual code clone detection. However, during software development, more and more developers write semantically equivalent programs with different languages to support different platforms and help developers translate projects from one language to another. Considering that collecting cross-language parallel data, especially for low-resource languages, is expensive and time-consuming, how designing an effective cross-language model that does not rely on any parallel data is a significant problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method named ZC3 for Zero-shot Cross-language Code Clone detection. ZC3 designs the contrastive snippet prediction to form an isomorphic representation space among different programming languages. Based on this, ZC3 exploits domain-aware learning and cycle consistency learning to further constrain the model to generate representations that are aligned among different languages meanwhile are diacritical for different types of clones. To evaluate our approach, we conduct extensive experiments on four representative cross-language clone detection datasets. Experimental results show that ZC3 outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines by 67.12%, 51.39%, 14.85%, and 53.01% on the MAP score, respectively. We further investigate the representational distribution of different languages and discuss the effectiveness of our method.
* Accepted by the 38th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated
Software Engineering (ASE 2023)
Large language models (LLMs), such as GPT-4, have shown remarkable performance in natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including challenging mathematical reasoning. However, most existing open-source models are only pre-trained on large-scale internet data and without math-related optimization. In this paper, we present WizardMath, which enhances the mathematical reasoning abilities of Llama-2, by applying our proposed Reinforcement Learning from Evol-Instruct Feedback (RLEIF) method to the domain of math. Through extensive experiments on two mathematical reasoning benchmarks, namely GSM8k and MATH, we reveal the extraordinary capabilities of our model. WizardMath surpasses all other open-source LLMs by a substantial margin. Furthermore, our model even outperforms ChatGPT-3.5, Claude Instant-1, PaLM-2 and Minerva on GSM8k, simultaneously surpasses Text-davinci-002, PaLM-1 and GPT-3 on MATH. More details and model weights are public at https://github.com/nlpxucan/WizardLM and https://huggingface.co/WizardLM.
Large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable capacity for in-context learning (ICL), where learning a new task from just a few training examples is done without being explicitly pre-trained. However, despite the success of LLMs, there has been little understanding of how ICL learns the knowledge from the given prompts. In this paper, to make progress toward understanding the learning behaviour of ICL, we train the same LLMs with the same demonstration examples via ICL and supervised learning (SL), respectively, and investigate their performance under label perturbations (i.e., noisy labels and label imbalance) on a range of classification tasks. First, via extensive experiments, we find that gold labels have significant impacts on the downstream in-context performance, especially for large language models; however, imbalanced labels matter little to ICL across all model sizes. Second, when comparing with SL, we show empirically that ICL is less sensitive to label perturbations than SL, and ICL gradually attains comparable performance to SL as the model size increases.
Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs), such as StarCoder, have demonstrated exceptional performance in code-related tasks. However, most existing models are solely pre-trained on extensive raw code data without instruction fine-tuning. In this paper, we introduce WizardCoder, which empowers Code LLMs with complex instruction fine-tuning, by adapting the Evol-Instruct method to the domain of code. Through comprehensive experiments on four prominent code generation benchmarks, namely HumanEval, HumanEval+, MBPP, and DS-1000, we unveil the exceptional capabilities of our model. It surpasses all other open-source Code LLMs by a substantial margin. Moreover, our model even outperforms the largest closed LLMs, Anthropic's Claude and Google's Bard, on HumanEval and HumanEval+. Our code, model weights, and data are public at https://github.com/nlpxucan/WizardLM
* Large Language model, Code Generation, Code LLMs