When trying to answer complex questions, people often rely on multiple sources of information, such as visual, textual, and tabular data. Previous approaches to this problem have focused on designing input features or model structure in the multi-modal space, which is inflexible for cross-modal reasoning or data-efficient training. In this paper, we call for an alternative paradigm, which transforms the images and tables into unified language representations, so that we can simplify the task into a simpler textual QA problem that can be solved using three steps: retrieval, ranking, and generation, all within a language space. This idea takes advantage of the power of pre-trained language models and is implemented in a framework called Solar. Our experimental results show that Solar outperforms all existing methods by 10.6-32.3 pts on two datasets, MultimodalQA and MMCoQA, across ten different metrics. Additionally, Solar achieves the best performance on the WebQA leaderboard
Multi-document grounded dialogue systems (DGDS) belong to a class of conversational agents that answer users' requests by finding supporting knowledge from a collection of documents. Most previous studies aim to improve the knowledge retrieval model or propose more effective ways to incorporate external knowledge into a parametric generation model. These methods, however, focus on retrieving knowledge from mono-granularity language units (e.g. passages, sentences, or spans in documents), which is not enough to effectively and efficiently capture precise knowledge in long documents. This paper proposes Re3G, which aims to optimize both coarse-grained knowledge retrieval and fine-grained knowledge extraction in a unified framework. Specifically, the former efficiently finds relevant passages in a retrieval-and-reranking process, whereas the latter effectively extracts finer-grain spans within those passages to incorporate into a parametric answer generation model (BART, T5). Experiments on DialDoc Shared Task demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Traffic analysis is crucial for urban operations and planning, while the availability of dense urban traffic data beyond loop detectors is still scarce. We present a large-scale floating vehicle dataset of per-street segment traffic information, Metropolitan Segment Traffic Speeds from Massive Floating Car Data in 10 Cities (MeTS-10), available for 10 global cities with a 15-minute resolution for collection periods ranging between 108 and 361 days in 2019-2021 and covering more than 1500 square kilometers per metropolitan area. MeTS-10 features traffic speed information at all street levels from main arterials to local streets for Antwerp, Bangkok, Barcelona, Berlin, Chicago, Istanbul, London, Madrid, Melbourne and Moscow. The dataset leverages the industrial-scale floating vehicle Traffic4cast data with speeds and vehicle counts provided in a privacy-preserving spatio-temporal aggregation. We detail the efficient matching approach mapping the data to the OpenStreetMap road graph. We evaluate the dataset by comparing it with publicly available stationary vehicle detector data (for Berlin, London, and Madrid) and the Uber traffic speed dataset (for Barcelona, Berlin, and London). The comparison highlights the differences across datasets in spatio-temporal coverage and variations in the reported traffic caused by the binning method. MeTS-10 enables novel, city-wide analysis of mobility and traffic patterns for ten major world cities, overcoming current limitations of spatially sparse vehicle detector data. The large spatial and temporal coverage offers an opportunity for joining the MeTS-10 with other datasets, such as traffic surveys in traffic planning studies or vehicle detector data in traffic control settings.
Building document-grounded dialogue systems have received growing interest as documents convey a wealth of human knowledge and commonly exist in enterprises. Wherein, how to comprehend and retrieve information from documents is a challenging research problem. Previous work ignores the visual property of documents and treats them as plain text, resulting in incomplete modality. In this paper, we propose a Layout-aware document-level Information Extraction dataset, LIE, to facilitate the study of extracting both structural and semantic knowledge from visually rich documents (VRDs), so as to generate accurate responses in dialogue systems. LIE contains 62k annotations of three extraction tasks from 4,061 pages in product and official documents, becoming the largest VRD-based information extraction dataset to the best of our knowledge. We also develop benchmark methods that extend the token-based language model to consider layout features like humans. Empirical results show that layout is critical for VRD-based extraction, and system demonstration also verifies that the extracted knowledge can help locate the answers that users care about.
Entity matching (EM) is the most critical step for entity resolution (ER). While current deep learningbased methods achieve very impressive performance on standard EM benchmarks, their realworld application performance is much frustrating. In this paper, we highlight that such the gap between reality and ideality stems from the unreasonable benchmark construction process, which is inconsistent with the nature of entity matching and therefore leads to biased evaluations of current EM approaches. To this end, we build a new EM corpus and re-construct EM benchmarks to challenge critical assumptions implicit in the previous benchmark construction process by step-wisely changing the restricted entities, balanced labels, and single-modal records in previous benchmarks into open entities, imbalanced labels, and multimodal records in an open environment. Experimental results demonstrate that the assumptions made in the previous benchmark construction process are not coincidental with the open environment, which conceal the main challenges of the task and therefore significantly overestimate the current progress of entity matching. The constructed benchmarks and code are publicly released
Modeling place functions from a computational perspective is a prevalent research topic. The technology of embedding enables a new approach that allows modeling the function of a place by its chronological context as part of a trajectory. The embedding similarity was previously proposed as a new metric for measuring the similarity of place functions, with some preliminary results. This study explores if this approach is meaningful for geographical units at a much smaller geographical granularity compared to previous studies. In addition, this study investigates if the geographical distance can influence the embedding similarity. The empirical evaluations based on a big vehicle trajectory data set confirm that the embedding similarity can be a metric proxy for place functions. However, the results also show that the embedding similarity is still bounded by the distance at the local scale.
Reverse engineering of binary executables is a critical problem in the computer security domain. On the one hand, malicious parties may recover interpretable source codes from the software products to gain commercial advantages. On the other hand, binary decompilation can be leveraged for code vulnerability analysis and malware detection. However, efficient binary decompilation is challenging. Conventional decompilers have the following major limitations: (i) they are only applicable to specific source-target language pair, hence incurs undesired development cost for new language tasks; (ii) their output high-level code cannot effectively preserve the correct functionality of the input binary; (iii) their output program does not capture the semantics of the input and the reversed program is hard to interpret. To address the above problems, we propose Coda, the first end-to-end neural-based framework for code decompilation. Coda decomposes the decompilation task into two key phases: First, Coda employs an instruction type-aware encoder and a tree decoder for generating an abstract syntax tree (AST) with attention feeding during the code sketch generation stage. Second, Coda then updates the code sketch using an iterative error correction machine guided by an ensembled neural error predictor. By finding a good approximate candidate and then fixing it towards perfect, Coda achieves superior performance compared to baseline approaches. We assess Coda's performance with extensive experiments on various benchmarks. Evaluation results show that Coda achieves an average of 82\% program recovery accuracy on unseen binary samples, where the state-of-the-art decompilers yield 0\% accuracy. Furthermore, Coda outperforms the sequence-to-sequence model with attention by a margin of 70\% program accuracy.