We study inferring a tree-structured representation from a single image for object shading. Prior work typically uses the parametric or measured representation to model shading, which is neither interpretable nor easily editable. We propose using the shade tree representation, which combines basic shading nodes and compositing methods to factorize object surface shading. The shade tree representation enables novice users who are unfamiliar with the physical shading process to edit object shading in an efficient and intuitive manner. A main challenge in inferring the shade tree is that the inference problem involves both the discrete tree structure and the continuous parameters of the tree nodes. We propose a hybrid approach to address this issue. We introduce an auto-regressive inference model to generate a rough estimation of the tree structure and node parameters, and then we fine-tune the inferred shade tree through an optimization algorithm. We show experiments on synthetic images, captured reflectance, real images, and non-realistic vector drawings, allowing downstream applications such as material editing, vectorized shading, and relighting. Project website: https://chen-geng.com/inv-shade-trees
This paper tackles the challenge of creating relightable and animatable neural avatars from sparse-view (or even monocular) videos of dynamic humans under unknown illumination. Compared to studio environments, this setting is more practical and accessible but poses an extremely challenging ill-posed problem. Previous neural human reconstruction methods are able to reconstruct animatable avatars from sparse views using deformed Signed Distance Fields (SDF) but cannot recover material parameters for relighting. While differentiable inverse rendering-based methods have succeeded in material recovery of static objects, it is not straightforward to extend them to dynamic humans as it is computationally intensive to compute pixel-surface intersection and light visibility on deformed SDFs for inverse rendering. To solve this challenge, we propose a Hierarchical Distance Query (HDQ) algorithm to approximate the world space distances under arbitrary human poses. Specifically, we estimate coarse distances based on a parametric human model and compute fine distances by exploiting the local deformation invariance of SDF. Based on the HDQ algorithm, we leverage sphere tracing to efficiently estimate the surface intersection and light visibility. This allows us to develop the first system to recover animatable and relightable neural avatars from sparse view (or monocular) inputs. Experiments demonstrate that our approach is able to produce superior results compared to state-of-the-art methods. Our code will be released for reproducibility.
This paper addresses the challenge of quickly reconstructing free-viewpoint videos of dynamic humans from sparse multi-view videos. Some recent works represent the dynamic human as a canonical neural radiance field (NeRF) and a motion field, which are learned from videos through differentiable rendering. But the per-scene optimization generally requires hours. Other generalizable NeRF models leverage learned prior from datasets and reduce the optimization time by only finetuning on new scenes at the cost of visual fidelity. In this paper, we propose a novel method for learning neural volumetric videos of dynamic humans from sparse view videos in minutes with competitive visual quality. Specifically, we define a novel part-based voxelized human representation to better distribute the representational power of the network to different human parts. Furthermore, we propose a novel 2D motion parameterization scheme to increase the convergence rate of deformation field learning. Experiments demonstrate that our model can be learned 100 times faster than prior per-scene optimization methods while being competitive in the rendering quality. Training our model on a $512 \times 512$ video with 100 frames typically takes about 5 minutes on a single RTX 3090 GPU. The code will be released on our project page: https://zju3dv.github.io/instant_nvr
This paper aims to reconstruct an animatable human model from a video of very sparse camera views. Some recent works represent human geometry and appearance with neural radiance fields and utilize parametric human models to produce deformation fields for animation, which enables them to recover detailed 3D human models from videos. However, their reconstruction results tend to be noisy due to the lack of surface constraints on radiance fields. Moreover, as they generate the human appearance in 3D space, their rendering quality heavily depends on the accuracy of deformation fields. To solve these problems, we propose Animatable Neural Implicit Surface (AniSDF), which models the human geometry with a signed distance field and defers the appearance generation to the 2D image space with a 2D neural renderer. The signed distance field naturally regularizes the learned geometry, enabling the high-quality reconstruction of human bodies, which can be further used to improve the rendering speed. Moreover, the 2D neural renderer can be learned to compensate for geometric errors, making the rendering more robust to inaccurate deformations. Experiments on several datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms recent human reconstruction and synthesis methods by a large margin.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral aneurysm is one of the most common cerebrovascular diseases, and SAH caused by its rupture has a very high mortality and disability rate. Existing automatic segmentation methods based on DLMs with TOF-MRA modality could not segment edge voxels very well, so that our goal is to realize more accurate segmentation of cerebral aneurysms in 3D TOF-MRA with the help of DLMs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this research, we proposed an automatic segmentation framework of cerebral aneurysm in 3D TOF-MRA. The framework was composed of two segmentation networks ranging from coarse to fine. The coarse segmentation network, namely DeepMedic, completed the coarse segmentation of cerebral aneurysms, and the processed results were fed into the fine segmentation network, namely dual-channel SE_3D U-Net trained with weighted loss function, for fine segmentation. Images from ADAM2020 (n=113) were used for training and validation and images from another center (n=45) were used for testing. The segmentation metrics we used include DSC, HD, and VS. RESULTS: The trained cerebral aneurysm segmentation model achieved DSC of 0.75, HD of 1.52, and VS of 0.91 on validation cohort. On the totally independent test cohort, our method achieved the highest DSC of 0.12, the lowest HD of 11.61, and the highest VS of 0.16 in comparison with state-of-the-art segmentation networks. CONCLUSIONS: The coarse-to-fine framework, which composed of DeepMedic and dual-channel SE_3D U-Net can segment cerebral aneurysms in 3D TOF-MRA with a superior accuracy.
Background:Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysm often leads to fatal consequences.However,if the aneurysm can be found and treated during asymptomatic periods,the probability of rupture can be greatly reduced.At present,time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography is one of the most commonly used non-invasive screening techniques for cerebral aneurysm,and the application of deep learning technology in aneurysm detection can effectively improve the screening effect of aneurysm.Existing studies have found that three-dimensional features play an important role in aneurysm detection,but they require a large amount of training data and have problems such as a high false positive rate. Methods:This paper proposed a novel method for aneurysm detection.First,a fully automatic cerebral artery segmentation algorithm without training data was used to extract the volume of interest,and then the 3D U-Net was improved by the 3D SENet module to establish an aneurysm detection model.Eventually a set of fully automated,end-to-end aneurysm detection methods have been formed. Results:A total of 231 magnetic resonance angiography image data were used in this study,among which 132 were training sets,34 were internal test sets and 65 were external test sets.The presented method obtained 97.89% sensitivity in the five-fold cross-validation and obtained 91.0% sensitivity with 2.48 false positives/case in the detection of the external test sets. Conclusions:Compared with the results of our previous studies and other studies,the method in this paper achieves a very competitive sensitivity with less training data and maintains a low false positive rate.As the only method currently using 3D U-Net for aneurysm detection,it proves the feasibility and superior performance of this network in aneurysm detection,and also explores the potential of the channel attention mechanism in this task.