Machine unlearning aims to revoke some training data after learning in response to requests from users, model developers, and administrators. Most previous methods are based on direct fine-tuning, which may neither remove data completely nor retain full performances on the remain data. In this work, we find that, by first masking some important parameters before fine-tuning, the performances of unlearning could be significantly improved. We propose a new masking strategy tailored to unlearning based on Fisher information. Experiments on various datasets and network structures show the effectiveness of the method: without any fine-tuning, the proposed Fisher masking could unlearn almost completely while maintaining most of the performance on the remain data. It also exhibits stronger stability compared to other unlearning baselines
Analogical reasoning is a fundamental cognitive ability of humans. However, current language models (LMs) still struggle to achieve human-like performance in analogical reasoning tasks due to a lack of resources for model training. In this work, we address this gap by proposing ANALOGYKB, a million-scale analogy knowledge base (KB) derived from existing knowledge graphs (KGs). ANALOGYKB identifies two types of analogies from the KGs: 1) analogies of the same relations, which can be directly extracted from the KGs, and 2) analogies of analogous relations, which are identified with a selection and filtering pipeline enabled by large LMs (InstructGPT), followed by minor human efforts for data quality control. Evaluations on a series of datasets of two analogical reasoning tasks (analogy recognition and generation) demonstrate that ANALOGYKB successfully enables LMs to achieve much better results than previous state-of-the-art methods.
Entity relation extraction consists of two sub-tasks: entity recognition and relation extraction. Existing methods either tackle these two tasks separately or unify them with word-by-word interactions. In this paper, we propose HIORE, a new method for unified entity relation extraction. The key insight is to leverage the high-order interactions, i.e., the complex association among word pairs, which contains richer information than the first-order word-by-word interactions. For this purpose, we first devise a W-shape DNN (WNet) to capture coarse-level high-order connections. Then, we build a heuristic high-order graph and further calibrate the representations with a graph neural network (GNN). Experiments on three benchmarks (ACE04, ACE05, SciERC) show that HIORE achieves the state-of-the-art performance on relation extraction and an improvement of 1.1~1.8 F1 points over the prior best unified model.
Given a possibly false claim sentence, how can we automatically correct it with minimal editing? Existing methods either require a large number of pairs of false and corrected claims for supervised training or do not handle well errors spanning over multiple tokens within an utterance. In this paper, we propose VENCE, a novel method for factual error correction (FEC) with minimal edits. VENCE formulates the FEC problem as iterative sampling editing actions with respect to a target density function. We carefully design the target function with predicted truthfulness scores from an offline trained fact verification model. VENCE samples the most probable editing positions based on back-calculated gradients of the truthfulness score concerning input tokens and the editing actions using a distantly-supervised language model (T5). Experiments on a public dataset show that VENCE improves the well-adopted SARI metric by 5.3 (or a relative improvement of 11.8%) over the previous best distantly-supervised methods.
Existing distantly supervised relation extractors usually rely on noisy data for both model training and evaluation, which may lead to garbage-in-garbage-out systems. To alleviate the problem, we study whether a small clean dataset could help improve the quality of distantly supervised models. We show that besides getting a more convincing evaluation of models, a small clean dataset also helps us to build more robust denoising models. Specifically, we propose a new criterion for clean instance selection based on influence functions. It collects sample-level evidence for recognizing good instances (which is more informative than loss-level evidence). We also propose a teacher-student mechanism for controlling purity of intermediate results when bootstrapping the clean set. The whole approach is model-agnostic and demonstrates strong performances on both denoising real (NYT) and synthetic noisy datasets.
Despite having achieved great success for sentiment analysis, existing neural models struggle with implicit sentiment analysis. This may be due to the fact that they may latch onto spurious correlations ("shortcuts", e.g., focusing only on explicit sentiment words), resulting in undermining the effectiveness and robustness of the learned model. In this work, we propose a causal intervention model for Implicit Sentiment Analysis using Instrumental Variable (ISAIV). We first review sentiment analysis from a causal perspective and analyze the confounders existing in this task. Then, we introduce an instrumental variable to eliminate the confounding causal effects, thus extracting the pure causal effect between sentence and sentiment. We compare the proposed ISAIV model with several strong baselines on both the general implicit sentiment analysis and aspect-based implicit sentiment analysis tasks. The results indicate the great advantages of our model and the efficacy of implicit sentiment reasoning.
The ability to recognize analogies is fundamental to human cognition. Existing benchmarks to test word analogy do not reveal the underneath process of analogical reasoning of neural models. Holding the belief that models capable of reasoning should be right for the right reasons, we propose a first-of-its-kind Explainable Knowledge-intensive Analogical Reasoning benchmark (E-KAR). Our benchmark consists of 1,655 (in Chinese) and 1,251 (in English) problems sourced from the Civil Service Exams, which require intensive background knowledge to solve. More importantly, we design a free-text explanation scheme to explain whether an analogy should be drawn, and manually annotate them for each and every question and candidate answer. Empirical results suggest that this benchmark is very challenging for some state-of-the-art models for both explanation generation and analogical question answering tasks, which invites further research in this area.
Document-level relation extraction aims to identify relations between entities in a whole document. Prior efforts to capture long-range dependencies have relied heavily on implicitly powerful representations learned through (graph) neural networks, which makes the model less transparent. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, we propose LogiRE, a novel probabilistic model for document-level relation extraction by learning logic rules. LogiRE treats logic rules as latent variables and consists of two modules: a rule generator and a relation extractor. The rule generator is to generate logic rules potentially contributing to final predictions, and the relation extractor outputs final predictions based on the generated logic rules. Those two modules can be efficiently optimized with the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. By introducing logic rules into neural networks, LogiRE can explicitly capture long-range dependencies as well as enjoy better interpretation. Empirical results show that LogiRE significantly outperforms several strong baselines in terms of relation performance (1.8 F1 score) and logical consistency (over 3.3 logic score). Our code is available at https://github.com/rudongyu/LogiRE.
Many joint entity relation extraction models setup two separated label spaces for the two sub-tasks (i.e., entity detection and relation classification). We argue that this setting may hinder the information interaction between entities and relations. In this work, we propose to eliminate the different treatment on the two sub-tasks' label spaces. The input of our model is a table containing all word pairs from a sentence. Entities and relations are represented by squares and rectangles in the table. We apply a unified classifier to predict each cell's label, which unifies the learning of two sub-tasks. For testing, an effective (yet fast) approximate decoder is proposed for finding squares and rectangles from tables. Experiments on three benchmarks (ACE04, ACE05, SciERC) show that, using only half the number of parameters, our model achieves competitive accuracy with the best extractor, and is faster.
In this paper, we investigate the problem of reasoning over natural language statements. Prior neural based approaches do not explicitly consider the inter-dependency among answers and their proofs. In this paper, we propose PRobr, a novel approach for joint answer prediction and proof generation. PRobr defines a joint probabilistic distribution over all possible proof graphs and answers via an induced graphical model. We then optimize the model using variational approximation on top of neural textual representation. Experiments on multiple datasets under diverse settings (fully supervised, few-shot and zero-shot evaluation) verify the effectiveness of PRobr, e.g., achieving 10%-30% improvement on QA accuracy in few/zero-shot evaluation. Our codes and models can be found at https://github.com/changzhisun/PRobr/.