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"speech": models, code, and papers

Unsupervised End-to-End Learning of Discrete Linguistic Units for Voice Conversion

May 28, 2019
Andy T. Liu, Po-chun Hsu, Hung-yi Lee

We present an unsupervised end-to-end training scheme where we discover discrete subword units from speech without using any labels. The discrete subword units are learned under an ASR-TTS autoencoder reconstruction setting, where an ASR-Encoder is trained to discover a set of common linguistic units given a variety of speakers, and a TTS-Decoder trained to project the discovered units back to the designated speech. We propose a discrete encoding method, Multilabel-Binary Vectors (MBV), to make the ASR-TTS autoencoder differentiable. We found that the proposed encoding method offers automatic extraction of speech content from speaker style, and is sufficient to cover full linguistic content in a given language. Therefore, the TTS-Decoder can synthesize speech with the same content as the input of ASR-Encoder but with different speaker characteristics, which achieves voice conversion (VC). We further improve the quality of VC using adversarial training, where we train a TTS-Patcher that augments the output of TTS-Decoder. Objective and subjective evaluations show that the proposed approach offers strong VC results as it eliminates speaker identity while preserving content within speech. In the ZeroSpeech 2019 Challenge, we achieved outstanding performance in terms of low bitrate.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2019, Graz, Austria 

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Talking Face Generation by Adversarially Disentangled Audio-Visual Representation

Jul 20, 2018
Hang Zhou, Yu Liu, Ziwei Liu, Ping Luo, Xiaogang Wang

Talking face generation aims to synthesize a sequence of face images that correspond to given speech semantics. However, when people talk, the subtle movements of their face region are usually a complex combination of the intrinsic face appearance of the subject and also the extrinsic speech to be delivered. Existing works either focus on the former, which constructs the specific face appearance model on a single subject; or the latter, which models the identity-agnostic transformation between lip motion and speech. In this work, we integrate both aspects and enable arbitrary-subject talking face generation by learning disentangled audio-visual representation. We assume the talking face sequence is actually a composition of both subject-related information and speech-related information. These two spaces are then explicitly disentangled through a novel associative-and-adversarial training process. The disentangled representation has an additional advantage that both audio and video can serve as the source of speech information for generation. Extensive experiments show that our proposed approach can generate realistic talking face sequences on arbitrary subjects with much clearer lip motion patterns. We also demonstrate the learned audio-visual representation is extremely useful for applications like automatic lip reading and audio-video retrieval.

* Code, models, and video results are available on our webpage: 

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Zero-Shot Long-Form Voice Cloning with Dynamic Convolution Attention

Jan 26, 2022
Artem Gorodetskii, Ivan Ozhiganov

With recent advancements in voice cloning, the performance of speech synthesis for a target speaker has been rendered similar to the human level. However, autoregressive voice cloning systems still suffer from text alignment failures, resulting in an inability to synthesize long sentences. In this work, we propose a variant of attention-based text-to-speech system that can reproduce a target voice from a few seconds of reference speech and generalize to very long utterances as well. The proposed system is based on three independently trained components: a speaker encoder, synthesizer and universal vocoder. Generalization to long utterances is realized using an energy-based attention mechanism known as Dynamic Convolution Attention, in combination with a set of modifications proposed for the synthesizer based on Tacotron 2. Moreover, effective zero-shot speaker adaptation is achieved by conditioning both the synthesizer and vocoder on a speaker encoder that has been pretrained on a large corpus of diverse data. We compare several implementations of voice cloning systems in terms of speech naturalness, speaker similarity, alignment consistency and ability to synthesize long utterances, and conclude that the proposed model can produce intelligible synthetic speech for extremely long utterances, while preserving a high extent of naturalness and similarity for short texts.

* Added article structure 

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Multi-task Voice Activated Framework using Self-supervised Learning

Oct 12, 2021
Shehzeen Hussain, Van Nguyen, Shuhua Zhang, Erik Visser

Self-supervised learning methods such as wav2vec 2.0 have shown promising results in learning speech representations from unlabelled and untranscribed speech data that are useful for speech recognition. Since these representations are learned without any task-specific supervision, they can also be useful for other voice-activated tasks like speaker verification, keyword spotting, emotion classification etc. In our work, we propose a general purpose framework for adapting a pre-trained wav2vec 2.0 model for different voice-activated tasks. We develop downstream network architectures that operate on the contextualized speech representations of wav2vec 2.0 to adapt the representations for solving a given task. Finally, we extend our framework to perform multi-task learning by jointly optimizing the network parameters on multiple voice activated tasks using a shared transformer backbone. Both of our single and multi-task frameworks achieve state-of-the-art results in speaker verification and keyword spotting benchmarks. Our best performing models achieve 1.98% and 3.15% EER on VoxCeleb1 test set when trained on VoxCeleb2 and VoxCeleb1 respectively, and 98.23% accuracy on Google Speech Commands v1.0 keyword spotting dataset.

* speaker verification, keyword spotting, wav2vec, self-supervised, multi-task learning 

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A convolutional neural-network model of human cochlear mechanics and filter tuning for real-time applications

Apr 30, 2020
Deepak Baby, Arthur Van Den Broucke, Sarah Verhulst

Auditory models are commonly used as feature extractors for automatic speech recognition systems or as front-ends for robotics, machine-hearing and hearing-aid applications. While over the years, auditory models have progressed to capture the biophysical and nonlinear properties of human hearing in great detail, these biophysical models are slow to compute and consequently not used in real-time applications. To enable an uptake, we present a hybrid approach where convolutional neural networks are combined with computational neuroscience to yield a real-time end-to-end model for human cochlear mechanics and level-dependent cochlear filter tuning (CoNNear). The CoNNear model was trained on acoustic speech material, but its performance and applicability evaluated using (unseen) sound stimuli common in cochlear mechanics research. The CoNNear model accurately simulates human frequency selectivity and its dependence on sound intensity, which is essential for our hallmark robust speech intelligibility performance, even at negative speech-to-background noise ratios. Because its architecture is based on real-time, parallel and differentiatable computations, the CoNNear model has the power to leverage real-time auditory applications towards human performance and can inspire the next generation of speech recognition, robotics and hearing-aid systems.

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Deep Residual Neural Networks for Audio Spoofing Detection

Jun 30, 2019
Moustafa Alzantot, Ziqi Wang, Mani B. Srivastava

The state-of-art models for speech synthesis and voice conversion are capable of generating synthetic speech that is perceptually indistinguishable from bonafide human speech. These methods represent a threat to the automatic speaker verification (ASV) systems. Additionally, replay attacks where the attacker uses a speaker to replay a previously recorded genuine human speech are also possible. We present our solution for the ASVSpoof2019 competition, which aims to develop countermeasure systems that distinguish between spoofing attacks and genuine speeches. Our model is inspired by the success of residual convolutional networks in many classification tasks. We build three variants of a residual convolutional neural network that accept different feature representations (MFCC, Log-magnitude STFT, and CQCC) of input. We compare the performance achieved by our model variants and the competition baseline models. In the logical access scenario, the fusion of our models has zero t-DCF cost and zero equal error rate (EER), as evaluated on the development set. On the evaluation set, our model fusion improves the t-DCF and EER by 25% compared to the baseline algorithms. Against physical access replay attacks, our model fusion improves the baseline algorithms t-DCF and EER scores by 71% and 75% on the evaluation set, respectively.

* Accepted in InterSpeech 2019 

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A Survey of Voice Translation Methodologies - Acoustic Dialect Decoder

Oct 13, 2016
Hans Krupakar, Keerthika Rajvel, Bharathi B, Angel Deborah S, Vallidevi Krishnamurthy

Speech Translation has always been about giving source text or audio input and waiting for system to give translated output in desired form. In this paper, we present the Acoustic Dialect Decoder (ADD) - a voice to voice ear-piece translation device. We introduce and survey the recent advances made in the field of Speech Engineering, to employ in the ADD, particularly focusing on the three major processing steps of Recognition, Translation and Synthesis. We tackle the problem of machine understanding of natural language by designing a recognition unit for source audio to text, a translation unit for source language text to target language text, and a synthesis unit for target language text to target language speech. Speech from the surroundings will be recorded by the recognition unit present on the ear-piece and translation will start as soon as one sentence is successfully read. This way, we hope to give translated output as and when input is being read. The recognition unit will use Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Based Tool-Kit (HTK), hybrid RNN systems with gated memory cells, and the synthesis unit, HMM based speech synthesis system HTS. This system will initially be built as an English to Tamil translation device.

* 2016 International Conference on Information Communication and Embedded Systems (ICICES), Chennai, 2016, pp. 1-9 
* (8 pages, 7 figures, IEEE Digital Xplore paper) 

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Analysis of Voice Conversion and Code-Switching Synthesis Using VQ-VAE

Mar 28, 2022
Shuvayanti Das, Jennifer Williams, Catherine Lai

This paper presents an analysis of speech synthesis quality achieved by simultaneously performing voice conversion and language code-switching using multilingual VQ-VAE speech synthesis in German, French, English and Italian. In this paper, we utilize VQ code indices representing phone information from VQ-VAE to perform code-switching and a VQ speaker code to perform voice conversion in a single system with a neural vocoder. Our analysis examines several aspects of code-switching including the number of language switches and the number of words involved in each switch. We found that speech synthesis quality degrades after increasing the number of language switches within an utterance and decreasing the number of words. We also found some evidence of accent transfer when performing voice conversion across languages as observed when a speaker's original language differs from the language of a synthetic target utterance. We present results from our listening tests and discuss the inherent difficulties of assessing accent transfer in speech synthesis. Our work highlights some of the limitations and strengths of using a semi-supervised end-to-end system like VQ-VAE for handling multilingual synthesis. Our work provides insight into why multilingual speech synthesis is challenging and we suggest some directions for expanding work in this area.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2022 

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Low Resource German ASR with Untranscribed Data Spoken by Non-native Children -- INTERSPEECH 2021 Shared Task SPAPL System

Jun 18, 2021
Jinhan Wang, Yunzheng Zhu, Ruchao Fan, Wei Chu, Abeer Alwan

This paper describes the SPAPL system for the INTERSPEECH 2021 Challenge: Shared Task on Automatic Speech Recognition for Non-Native Children's Speech in German. ~ 5 hours of transcribed data and ~ 60 hours of untranscribed data are provided to develop a German ASR system for children. For the training of the transcribed data, we propose a non-speech state discriminative loss (NSDL) to mitigate the influence of long-duration non-speech segments within speech utterances. In order to explore the use of the untranscribed data, various approaches are implemented and combined together to incrementally improve the system performance. First, bidirectional autoregressive predictive coding (Bi-APC) is used to learn initial parameters for acoustic modelling using the provided untranscribed data. Second, incremental semi-supervised learning is further used to iteratively generate pseudo-transcribed data. Third, different data augmentation schemes are used at different training stages to increase the variability and size of the training data. Finally, a recurrent neural network language model (RNNLM) is used for rescoring. Our system achieves a word error rate (WER) of 39.68% on the evaluation data, an approximately 12% relative improvement over the official baseline (45.21%).

* Accepted to INTERSPEECH 2021 

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