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"photo": models, code, and papers

Fast and Robust Face-to-Parameter Translation for Game Character Auto-Creation

Aug 17, 2020
Tianyang Shi, Zhengxia Zou, Yi Yuan, Changjie Fan

With the rapid development of Role-Playing Games (RPGs), players are now allowed to edit the facial appearance of their in-game characters with their preferences rather than using default templates. This paper proposes a game character auto-creation framework that generates in-game characters according to a player's input face photo. Different from the previous methods that are designed based on neural style transfer or monocular 3D face reconstruction, we re-formulate the character auto-creation process in a different point of view: by predicting a large set of physically meaningful facial parameters under a self-supervised learning paradigm. Instead of updating facial parameters iteratively at the input end of the renderer as suggested by previous methods, which are time-consuming, we introduce a facial parameter translator so that the creation can be done efficiently through a single forward propagation from the face embeddings to parameters, with a considerable 1000x computational speedup. Despite its high efficiency, the interactivity is preserved in our method where users are allowed to optionally fine-tune the facial parameters on our creation according to their needs. Our approach also shows better robustness than previous methods, especially for those photos with head-pose variance. Comparison results and ablation analysis on seven public face verification datasets suggest the effectiveness of our method.

* Accepted by AAAI 2020 with supplementary material 

Personalized Speech2Video with 3D Skeleton Regularization and Expressive Body Poses

Jul 17, 2020
Miao Liao, Sibo Zhang, Peng Wang, Hao Zhu, Ruigang Yang

In this paper, we propose a novel approach to convert given speech audio to a photo-realistic speaking video of a specific person, where the output video has synchronized, realistic, and expressive rich body dynamics. We achieve this by first generating 3D skeleton movements from the audio sequence using a recurrent neural network (RNN), and then synthesizing the output video via a conditional generative adversarial network (GAN). To make the skeleton movement realistic and expressive, we embed the knowledge of an articulated 3D human skeleton and a learned dictionary of personal speech iconic gestures into the generation process in both learning and testing pipelines. The former prevents the generation of unreasonable body distortion, while the later helps our model quickly learn meaningful body movement through a few recorded videos. To produce photo-realistic and high-resolution video with motion details, we propose to insert part attention mechanisms in the conditional GAN, where each detailed part, e.g. head and hand, is automatically zoomed in to have their own discriminators. To validate our approach, we collect a dataset with 20 high-quality videos from 1 male and 1 female model reading various documents under different topics. Compared with previous SoTA pipelines handling similar tasks, our approach achieves better results by a user study.


CheXpedition: Investigating Generalization Challenges for Translation of Chest X-Ray Algorithms to the Clinical Setting

Mar 11, 2020
Pranav Rajpurkar, Anirudh Joshi, Anuj Pareek, Phil Chen, Amirhossein Kiani, Jeremy Irvin, Andrew Y. Ng, Matthew P. Lungren

Although there have been several recent advances in the application of deep learning algorithms to chest x-ray interpretation, we identify three major challenges for the translation of chest x-ray algorithms to the clinical setting. We examine the performance of the top 10 performing models on the CheXpert challenge leaderboard on three tasks: (1) TB detection, (2) pathology detection on photos of chest x-rays, and (3) pathology detection on data from an external institution. First, we find that the top 10 chest x-ray models on the CheXpert competition achieve an average AUC of 0.851 on the task of detecting TB on two public TB datasets without fine-tuning or including the TB labels in training data. Second, we find that the average performance of the models on photos of x-rays (AUC = 0.916) is similar to their performance on the original chest x-ray images (AUC = 0.924). Third, we find that the models tested on an external dataset either perform comparably to or exceed the average performance of radiologists. We believe that our investigation will inform rapid translation of deep learning algorithms to safe and effective clinical decision support tools that can be validated prospectively with large impact studies and clinical trials.

* Accepted as workshop paper at ACM Conference on Health, Inference, and Learning (CHIL) 2020 

FACIAL: Synthesizing Dynamic Talking Face with Implicit Attribute Learning

Aug 18, 2021
Chenxu Zhang, Yifan Zhao, Yifei Huang, Ming Zeng, Saifeng Ni, Madhukar Budagavi, Xiaohu Guo

In this paper, we propose a talking face generation method that takes an audio signal as input and a short target video clip as reference, and synthesizes a photo-realistic video of the target face with natural lip motions, head poses, and eye blinks that are in-sync with the input audio signal. We note that the synthetic face attributes include not only explicit ones such as lip motions that have high correlations with speech, but also implicit ones such as head poses and eye blinks that have only weak correlation with the input audio. To model such complicated relationships among different face attributes with input audio, we propose a FACe Implicit Attribute Learning Generative Adversarial Network (FACIAL-GAN), which integrates the phonetics-aware, context-aware, and identity-aware information to synthesize the 3D face animation with realistic motions of lips, head poses, and eye blinks. Then, our Rendering-to-Video network takes the rendered face images and the attention map of eye blinks as input to generate the photo-realistic output video frames. Experimental results and user studies show our method can generate realistic talking face videos with not only synchronized lip motions, but also natural head movements and eye blinks, with better qualities than the results of state-of-the-art methods.

* 10 pages, 9 figures. Accepted by ICCV 2021 

Guided Facial Skin Color Correction

May 19, 2021
Keiichiro Shirai, Tatsuya Baba, Shunsuke Ono, Masahiro Okuda, Yusuke Tatesumi, Paul Perrotin

This paper proposes an automatic image correction method for portrait photographs, which promotes consistency of facial skin color by suppressing skin color changes due to background colors. In portrait photographs, skin color is often distorted due to the lighting environment (e.g., light reflected from a colored background wall and over-exposure by a camera strobe), and if the photo is artificially combined with another background color, this color change is emphasized, resulting in an unnatural synthesized result. In our framework, after roughly extracting the face region and rectifying the skin color distribution in a color space, we perform color and brightness correction around the face in the original image to achieve a proper color balance of the facial image, which is not affected by luminance and background colors. Unlike conventional algorithms for color correction, our final result is attained by a color correction process with a guide image. In particular, our guided image filtering for the color correction does not require a perfectly-aligned guide image required in the original guide image filtering method proposed by He et al. Experimental results show that our method generates more natural results than conventional methods on not only headshot photographs but also natural scene photographs. We also show automatic yearbook style photo generation as an another application.

* 12 pages, 16 figures 

Conditional Sequential Modulation for Efficient Global Image Retouching

Sep 22, 2020
Jingwen He, Yihao Liu, Yu Qiao, Chao Dong

Photo retouching aims at enhancing the aesthetic visual quality of images that suffer from photographic defects such as over/under exposure, poor contrast, inharmonious saturation. Practically, photo retouching can be accomplished by a series of image processing operations. In this paper, we investigate some commonly-used retouching operations and mathematically find that these pixel-independent operations can be approximated or formulated by multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs). Based on this analysis, we propose an extremely light-weight framework - Conditional Sequential Retouching Network (CSRNet) - for efficient global image retouching. CSRNet consists of a base network and a condition network. The base network acts like an MLP that processes each pixel independently and the condition network extracts the global features of the input image to generate a condition vector. To realize retouching operations, we modulate the intermediate features using Global Feature Modulation (GFM), of which the parameters are transformed by condition vector. Benefiting from the utilization of $1\times1$ convolution, CSRNet only contains less than 37k trainable parameters, which is orders of magnitude smaller than existing learning-based methods. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark MIT-Adobe FiveK dataset quantitively and qualitatively. Code is available at

* ECCV 2020 

Structure Preserving Large Imagery Reconstruction

Sep 13, 2014
Ju Shen, Jianjun Yang, Sami Taha-abusneineh, Bryson Payne, Markus Hitz

With the explosive growth of web-based cameras and mobile devices, billions of photographs are uploaded to the internet. We can trivially collect a huge number of photo streams for various goals, such as image clustering, 3D scene reconstruction, and other big data applications. However, such tasks are not easy due to the fact the retrieved photos can have large variations in their view perspectives, resolutions, lighting, noises, and distortions. Fur-thermore, with the occlusion of unexpected objects like people, vehicles, it is even more challenging to find feature correspondences and reconstruct re-alistic scenes. In this paper, we propose a structure-based image completion algorithm for object removal that produces visually plausible content with consistent structure and scene texture. We use an edge matching technique to infer the potential structure of the unknown region. Driven by the estimated structure, texture synthesis is performed automatically along the estimated curves. We evaluate the proposed method on different types of images: from highly structured indoor environment to natural scenes. Our experimental results demonstrate satisfactory performance that can be potentially used for subsequent big data processing, such as image localization, object retrieval, and scene reconstruction. Our experiments show that this approach achieves favorable results that outperform existing state-of-the-art techniques.


Extract and Merge: Merging extracted humans from different images utilizing Mask R-CNN

Aug 01, 2019
Asati Minkesh, Kraisittipong Worranitta, Miyachi Taizo

Selecting human objects out of the various type of objects in images and merging them with other scenes is manual and day-to-day work for photo editors. Although recently Adobe photoshop released "select subject" tool which automatically selects the foreground object in an image, but still requires fine manual tweaking separately. In this work, we proposed an application utilizing Mask R-CNN (for object detection and mask segmentation) that can extract human instances from multiple images and merge them with a new background. This application does not add any overhead to Mask R-CNN, running at 5 frames per second. It can extract human instances from any number of images or videos from merging them together. We also structured the code to accept videos of different lengths as input and length of the output-video will be equal to the longest input-video. We wanted to create a simple yet effective application that can serve as a base for photo editing and do most time-consuming work automatically, so, editors can focus more on the design part. Other application could be to group people together in a single picture with a new background from different images which could not be physically together. We are showing single-person and multi-person extraction and placement in two different backgrounds. Also, we are showing a video example with single-person extraction.

* 12 pages, 13 figures 

A Structured Approach to Predicting Image Enhancement Parameters

Apr 05, 2017
Parag S. Chandakkar, Baoxin Li

Social networking on mobile devices has become a commonplace of everyday life. In addition, photo capturing process has become trivial due to the advances in mobile imaging. Hence people capture a lot of photos everyday and they want them to be visually-attractive. This has given rise to automated, one-touch enhancement tools. However, the inability of those tools to provide personalized and content-adaptive enhancement has paved way for machine-learned methods to do the same. The existing typical machine-learned methods heuristically (e.g. kNN-search) predict the enhancement parameters for a new image by relating the image to a set of similar training images. These heuristic methods need constant interaction with the training images which makes the parameter prediction sub-optimal and computationally expensive at test time which is undesired. This paper presents a novel approach to predicting the enhancement parameters given a new image using only its features, without using any training images. We propose to model the interaction between the image features and its corresponding enhancement parameters using the matrix factorization (MF) principles. We also propose a way to integrate the image features in the MF formulation. We show that our approach outperforms heuristic approaches as well as recent approaches in MF and structured prediction on synthetic as well as real-world data of image enhancement.

* WACV 2016