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"music generation": models, code, and papers

A framework to compare music generative models using automatic evaluation metrics extended to rhythm

Jan 19, 2021
Sebastian Garcia-Valencia, Alejandro Betancourt, Juan G. Lalinde-Pulido

To train a machine learning model is necessary to take numerous decisions about many options for each process involved, in the field of sequence generation and more specifically of music composition, the nature of the problem helps to narrow the options but at the same time, some other options appear for specific challenges. This paper takes the framework proposed in a previous research that did not consider rhythm to make a series of design decisions, then, rhythm support is added to evaluate the performance of two RNN memory cells in the creation of monophonic music. The model considers the handling of music transposition and the framework evaluates the quality of the generated pieces using automatic quantitative metrics based on geometry which have rhythm support added as well.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2012.01231 

Sampling Variations of Lead Sheets

Mar 02, 2017
Pierre Roy, Alexandre Papadopoulos, François Pachet

Machine-learning techniques have been recently used with spectacular results to generate artefacts such as music or text. However, these techniques are still unable to capture and generate artefacts that are convincingly structured. In this paper we present an approach to generate structured musical sequences. We introduce a mechanism for sampling efficiently variations of musical sequences. Given a input sequence and a statistical model, this mechanism samples a set of sequences whose distance to the input sequence is approximately within specified bounds. This mechanism is implemented as an extension of belief propagation, and uses local fields to bias the generation. We show experimentally that sampled sequences are indeed closely correlated to the standard musical similarity measure defined by Mongeau and Sankoff. We then show how this mechanism can used to implement composition strategies that enforce arbitrary structure on a musical lead sheet generation problem.

* 16 pages, 11 figures 

LakhNES: Improving multi-instrumental music generation with cross-domain pre-training

Jul 10, 2019
Chris Donahue, Huanru Henry Mao, Yiting Ethan Li, Garrison W. Cottrell, Julian McAuley

We are interested in the task of generating multi-instrumental music scores. The Transformer architecture has recently shown great promise for the task of piano score generation; here we adapt it to the multi-instrumental setting. Transformers are complex, high-dimensional language models which are capable of capturing long-term structure in sequence data, but require large amounts of data to fit. Their success on piano score generation is partially explained by the large volumes of symbolic data readily available for that domain. We leverage the recently-introduced NES-MDB dataset of four-instrument scores from an early video game sound synthesis chip (the NES), which we find to be well-suited to training with the Transformer architecture. To further improve the performance of our model, we propose a pre-training technique to leverage the information in a large collection of heterogeneous music, namely the Lakh MIDI dataset. Despite differences between the two corpora, we find that this transfer learning procedure improves both quantitative and qualitative performance for our primary task.

* Published as a conference paper at ISMIR 2019 

CycleDRUMS: Automatic Drum Arrangement For Bass Lines Using CycleGAN

Apr 09, 2021
Giorgio Barnabò, Giovanni Trappolini, Lorenzo Lastilla, Cesare Campagnano, Angela Fan, Fabio Petroni, Fabrizio Silvestri

The two main research threads in computer-based music generation are: the construction of autonomous music-making systems, and the design of computer-based environments to assist musicians. In the symbolic domain, the key problem of automatically arranging a piece music was extensively studied, while relatively fewer systems tackled this challenge in the audio domain. In this contribution, we propose CycleDRUMS, a novel method for generating drums given a bass line. After converting the waveform of the bass into a mel-spectrogram, we are able to automatically generate original drums that follow the beat, sound credible and can be directly mixed with the input bass. We formulated this task as an unpaired image-to-image translation problem, and we addressed it with CycleGAN, a well-established unsupervised style transfer framework, originally designed for treating images. The choice to deploy raw audio and mel-spectrograms enabled us to better represent how humans perceive music, and to potentially draw sounds for new arrangements from the vast collection of music recordings accumulated in the last century. In absence of an objective way of evaluating the output of both generative adversarial networks and music generative systems, we further defined a possible metric for the proposed task, partially based on human (and expert) judgement. Finally, as a comparison, we replicated our results with Pix2Pix, a paired image-to-image translation network, and we showed that our approach outperforms it.

* 9 pages, 5 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, the authors contributed equally to this work 

Adaptive Music Composition for Games

Jul 02, 2019
Patrick Hutchings, Jon McCormack

The generation of music that adapts dynamically to content and actions has an important role in building more immersive, memorable and emotive game experiences. To date, the development of adaptive music systems for video games is limited by both the nature of algorithms used for real-time music generation and the limited modelling of player action, game world context and emotion in current games. We propose that these issues must be addressed in tandem for the quality and flexibility of adaptive game music to significantly improve. Cognitive models of knowledge organisation and emotional affect are integrated with multi-modal, multi-agent composition techniques to produce a novel Adaptive Music System (AMS). The system is integrated into two stylistically distinct games. Gamers reported an overall higher immersion and correlation of music with game-world concepts with the AMS than with the original game soundtracks in both games.

* Preprint. Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Games, 2019 

A Quantum Natural Language Processing Approach to Musical Intelligence

Nov 10, 2021
Eduardo Reck Miranda, Richie Yeung, Anna Pearson, Konstantinos Meichanetzidis, Bob Coecke

There has been tremendous progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for music, in particular for musical composition and access to large databases for commercialisation through the Internet. We are interested in further advancing this field, focusing on composition. In contrast to current black-box AI methods, we are championing an interpretable compositional outlook on generative music systems. In particular, we are importing methods from the Distributional Compositional Categorical (DisCoCat) modelling framework for Natural Language Processing (NLP), motivated by musical grammars. Quantum computing is a nascent technology, which is very likely to impact the music industry in time to come. Thus, we are pioneering a Quantum Natural Language Processing (QNLP) approach to develop a new generation of intelligent musical systems. This work follows from previous experimental implementations of DisCoCat linguistic models on quantum hardware. In this chapter, we present Quanthoven, the first proof-of-concept ever built, which (a) demonstrates that it is possible to program a quantum computer to learn to classify music that conveys different meanings and (b) illustrates how such a capability might be leveraged to develop a system to compose meaningful pieces of music. After a discussion about our current understanding of music as a communication medium and its relationship to natural language, the chapter focuses on the techniques developed to (a) encode musical compositions as quantum circuits, and (b) design a quantum classifier. The chapter ends with demonstrations of compositions created with the system.

* Pre-publication draft of a chapter to appear in Quantum Computer Music, E. R. Miranda (Ed.) 

GAN Computers Generate Arts? A Survey on Visual Arts, Music, and Literary Text Generation using Generative Adversarial Network

Aug 14, 2021
Sakib Shahriar

"Art is the lie that enables us to realize the truth." - Pablo Picasso. For centuries, humans have dedicated themselves to producing arts to convey their imagination. The advancement in technology and deep learning in particular, has caught the attention of many researchers trying to investigate whether art generation is possible by computers and algorithms. Using generative adversarial networks (GANs), applications such as synthesizing photorealistic human faces and creating captions automatically from images were realized. This survey takes a comprehensive look at the recent works using GANs for generating visual arts, music, and literary text. A performance comparison and description of the various GAN architecture are also presented. Finally, some of the key challenges in art generation using GANs are highlighted along with recommendations for future work.

* Submitted to Pattern Recognition Letters 

From Context to Concept: Exploring Semantic Relationships in Music with Word2Vec

Nov 29, 2018
Ching-Hua Chuan, Kat Agres, Dorien Herremans

We explore the potential of a popular distributional semantics vector space model, word2vec, for capturing meaningful relationships in ecological (complex polyphonic) music. More precisely, the skip-gram version of word2vec is used to model slices of music from a large corpus spanning eight musical genres. In this newly learned vector space, a metric based on cosine distance is able to distinguish between functional chord relationships, as well as harmonic associations in the music. Evidence, based on cosine distance between chord-pair vectors, suggests that an implicit circle-of-fifths exists in the vector space. In addition, a comparison between pieces in different keys reveals that key relationships are represented in word2vec space. These results suggest that the newly learned embedded vector representation does in fact capture tonal and harmonic characteristics of music, without receiving explicit information about the musical content of the constituent slices. In order to investigate whether proximity in the discovered space of embeddings is indicative of `semantically-related' slices, we explore a music generation task, by automatically replacing existing slices from a given piece of music with new slices. We propose an algorithm to find substitute slices based on spatial proximity and the pitch class distribution inferred in the chosen subspace. The results indicate that the size of the subspace used has a significant effect on whether slices belonging to the same key are selected. In sum, the proposed word2vec model is able to learn music-vector embeddings that capture meaningful tonal and harmonic relationships in music, thereby providing a useful tool for exploring musical properties and comparisons across pieces, as a potential input representation for deep learning models, and as a music generation device.

* Neural Computing and Applications, Springer. 2019 
* Accepted for publication in Neural Computing and Applications, Springer. In Press