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"facial recognition": models, code, and papers

What happens in Face during a facial expression? Using data mining techniques to analyze facial expression motion vectors

Sep 12, 2021
Mohamad Roshanzamir, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Mahdi Roshanzamir, Afshin Shoeibi, Juan M. Gorriz, Abbas Khosrave, Saeid Nahavandi

One of the most common problems encountered in human-computer interaction is automatic facial expression recognition. Although it is easy for human observer to recognize facial expressions, automatic recognition remains difficult for machines. One of the methods that machines can recognize facial expression is analyzing the changes in face during facial expression presentation. In this paper, optical flow algorithm was used to extract deformation or motion vectors created in the face because of facial expressions. Then, these extracted motion vectors are used to be analyzed. Their positions and directions were exploited for automatic facial expression recognition using different data mining techniques. It means that by employing motion vector features used as our data, facial expressions were recognized. Some of the most state-of-the-art classification algorithms such as C5.0, CRT, QUEST, CHAID, Deep Learning (DL), SVM and Discriminant algorithms were used to classify the extracted motion vectors. Using 10-fold cross validation, their performances were calculated. To compare their performance more precisely, the test was repeated 50 times. Meanwhile, the deformation of face was also analyzed in this research. For example, what exactly happened in each part of face when a person showed fear? Experimental results on Extended Cohen-Kanade (CK+) facial expression dataset demonstrated that the best methods were DL, SVM and C5.0, with the accuracy of 95.3%, 92.8% and 90.2% respectively.


FERA 2017 - Addressing Head Pose in the Third Facial Expression Recognition and Analysis Challenge

Feb 14, 2017
Michel F. Valstar, Enrique Sánchez-Lozano, Jeffrey F. Cohn, László A. Jeni, Jeffrey M. Girard, Zheng Zhang, Lijun Yin, Maja Pantic

The field of Automatic Facial Expression Analysis has grown rapidly in recent years. However, despite progress in new approaches as well as benchmarking efforts, most evaluations still focus on either posed expressions, near-frontal recordings, or both. This makes it hard to tell how existing expression recognition approaches perform under conditions where faces appear in a wide range of poses (or camera views), displaying ecologically valid expressions. The main obstacle for assessing this is the availability of suitable data, and the challenge proposed here addresses this limitation. The FG 2017 Facial Expression Recognition and Analysis challenge (FERA 2017) extends FERA 2015 to the estimation of Action Units occurrence and intensity under different camera views. In this paper we present the third challenge in automatic recognition of facial expressions, to be held in conjunction with the 12th IEEE conference on Face and Gesture Recognition, May 2017, in Washington, United States. Two sub-challenges are defined: the detection of AU occurrence, and the estimation of AU intensity. In this work we outline the evaluation protocol, the data used, and the results of a baseline method for both sub-challenges.

* FERA 2017 Baseline Paper 

The Indian Spontaneous Expression Database for Emotion Recognition

Jun 16, 2016
S L Happy, Priyadarshi Patnaik, Aurobinda Routray, Rajlakshmi Guha

Automatic recognition of spontaneous facial expressions is a major challenge in the field of affective computing. Head rotation, face pose, illumination variation, occlusion etc. are the attributes that increase the complexity of recognition of spontaneous expressions in practical applications. Effective recognition of expressions depends significantly on the quality of the database used. Most well-known facial expression databases consist of posed expressions. However, currently there is a huge demand for spontaneous expression databases for the pragmatic implementation of the facial expression recognition algorithms. In this paper, we propose and establish a new facial expression database containing spontaneous expressions of both male and female participants of Indian origin. The database consists of 428 segmented video clips of the spontaneous facial expressions of 50 participants. In our experiment, emotions were induced among the participants by using emotional videos and simultaneously their self-ratings were collected for each experienced emotion. Facial expression clips were annotated carefully by four trained decoders, which were further validated by the nature of stimuli used and self-report of emotions. An extensive analysis was carried out on the database using several machine learning algorithms and the results are provided for future reference. Such a spontaneous database will help in the development and validation of algorithms for recognition of spontaneous expressions.

* in IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 2016 

Where Is My Puppy? Retrieving Lost Dogs by Facial Features

Aug 01, 2016
Thierry Pinheiro Moreira, Mauricio Lisboa Perez, Rafael de Oliveira Werneck, Eduardo Valle

A pet that goes missing is among many people's worst fears: a moment of distraction is enough for a dog or a cat wandering off from home. Some measures help matching lost animals to their owners; but automated visual recognition is one that - although convenient, highly available, and low-cost - is surprisingly overlooked. In this paper, we inaugurate that promising avenue by pursuing face recognition for dogs. We contrast four ready-to-use human facial recognizers (EigenFaces, FisherFaces, LBPH, and a Sparse method) to two original solutions based upon convolutional neural networks: BARK (inspired in architecture-optimized networks employed for human facial recognition) and WOOF (based upon off-the-shelf OverFeat features). Human facial recognizers perform poorly for dogs (up to 60.5% accuracy), showing that dog facial recognition is not a trivial extension of human facial recognition. The convolutional network solutions work much better, with BARK attaining up to 81.1% accuracy, and WOOF, 89.4%. The tests were conducted in two datasets: Flickr-dog, with 42 dogs of two breeds (pugs and huskies); and Snoopybook, with 18 mongrel dogs.

* 17 pages, 8 figures, 1 table, Multimedia Tools and Applications 

Feature Super-Resolution Based Facial Expression Recognition for Multi-scale Low-Resolution Faces

Apr 05, 2020
Wei Jing, Feng Tian, Jizhong Zhang, Kuo-Ming Chao, Zhenxin Hong, Xu Liu

Facial Expressions Recognition(FER) on low-resolution images is necessary for applications like group expression recognition in crowd scenarios(station, classroom etc.). Classifying a small size facial image into the right expression category is still a challenging task. The main cause of this problem is the loss of discriminative feature due to reduced resolution. Super-resolution method is often used to enhance low-resolution images, but the performance on FER task is limited when on images of very low resolution. In this work, inspired by feature super-resolution methods for object detection, we proposed a novel generative adversary network-based feature level super-resolution method for robust facial expression recognition(FSR-FER). In particular, a pre-trained FER model was employed as feature extractor, and a generator network G and a discriminator network D are trained with features extracted from images of low resolution and original high resolution. Generator network G tries to transform features of low-resolution images to more discriminative ones by making them closer to the ones of corresponding high-resolution images. For better classification performance, we also proposed an effective classification-aware loss re-weighting strategy based on the classification probability calculated by a fixed FER model to make our model focus more on samples that are easily misclassified. Experiment results on Real-World Affective Faces (RAF) Database demonstrate that our method achieves satisfying results on various down-sample factors with a single model and has better performance on low-resolution images compared with methods using image super-resolution and expression recognition separately.

* 13 pages, 5 figures 

A Recursive Framework for Expression Recognition: From Web Images to Deep Models to Game Dataset

Aug 04, 2016
Wei Li, Christina Tsangouri, Farnaz Abtahi, Zhigang Zhu

In this paper, we propose a recursive framework to recognize facial expressions from images in real scenes. Unlike traditional approaches that typically focus on developing and refining algorithms for improving recognition performance on an existing dataset, we integrate three important components in a recursive manner: facial dataset generation, facial expression recognition model building, and interactive interfaces for testing and new data collection. To start with, we first create a candid-images-for-facial-expression (CIFE) dataset. We then apply a convolutional neural network (CNN) to CIFE and build a CNN model for web image expression classification. In order to increase the expression recognition accuracy, we also fine-tune the CNN model and thus obtain a better CNN facial expression recognition model. Based on the fine-tuned CNN model, we design a facial expression game engine and collect a new and more balanced dataset, GaMo. The images of this dataset are collected from the different expressions our game users make when playing the game. Finally, we evaluate the GaMo and CIFE datasets and show that our recursive framework can help build a better facial expression model for dealing with real scene facial expression tasks.

* Submit to Machine Vision Application Journal. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1607.02678 

SoK: Anti-Facial Recognition Technology

Dec 08, 2021
Emily Wenger, Shawn Shan, Haitao Zheng, Ben Y. Zhao

The rapid adoption of facial recognition (FR) technology by both government and commercial entities in recent years has raised concerns about civil liberties and privacy. In response, a broad suite of so-called "anti-facial recognition" (AFR) tools has been developed to help users avoid unwanted facial recognition. The set of AFR tools proposed in the last few years is wide-ranging and rapidly evolving, necessitating a step back to consider the broader design space of AFR systems and long-term challenges. This paper aims to fill that gap and provides the first comprehensive analysis of the AFR research landscape. Using the operational stages of FR systems as a starting point, we create a systematic framework for analyzing the benefits and tradeoffs of different AFR approaches. We then consider both technical and social challenges facing AFR tools and propose directions for future research in this field.

* 13 pages 

Spontaneous Facial Expression Recognition using Sparse Representation

Sep 30, 2018
Dawood Al Chanti, Alice Caplier

Facial expression is the most natural means for human beings to communicate their emotions. Most facial expression analysis studies consider the case of acted expressions. Spontaneous facial expression recognition is significantly more challenging since each person has a different way to react to a given emotion. We consider the problem of recognizing spontaneous facial expression by learning discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation. Facial images are represented as a sparse linear combination of prototype atoms via Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. Sparse codes are then used to train an SVM classifier dedicated to the recognition task. The dictionary that sparsifies the facial images (feature points with the same class labels should have similar sparse codes) is crucial for robust classification. Learning sparsifying dictionaries heavily relies on the initialization process of the dictionary. To improve the performance of dictionaries, a random face feature descriptor based on the Random Projection concept is developed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through several experiments on the spontaneous facial expressions DynEmo database. It is also estimated on the well-known acted facial expressions JAFFE database for a purpose of comparison with state-of-the-art methods.

* 11 pages, 9 figures, VISAPP 2017, publisher=SciTePress, organization=INSTICC, isbn=978-989-758-226-4, Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications - Volume 5: VISAPP, (VISIGRAPP 2017)}, 2017 

What is the relationship between face alignment and facial expression recognition?

May 26, 2019
Romain Belmonte, Benjamin Allaert, Pierre Tirilly, Ioan Marius Bilasco, Chaabane Djeraba, Nicu Sebe

Face expression recognition is still a complex task, particularly due to the presence of head pose variations. Although face alignment approaches are becoming increasingly accurate for characterizing facial regions, it is important to consider the impact of these approaches when they are used for other related tasks such as head pose registration or facial expression recognition. In this paper, we compare the performance of recent face alignment approaches to highlight the most appropriate techniques for preserving facial geometry when correcting the head pose variation. Also, we highlight the most suitable techniques that locate facial landmarks in the presence of head pose variations and facial expressions.


Recognition of expression variant faces using masked log-Gabor features and Principal Component Analysis

May 07, 2006
Vytautas Perlibakas

In this article we propose a method for the recognition of faces with different facial expressions. For recognition we extract feature vectors by using log-Gabor filters of multiple orientations and scales. Using sliding window algorithm and variances -based masking these features are extracted at image regions that are less affected by the changes of facial expressions. Extracted features are passed to the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) -based recognition method. The results of face recognition experiments using expression variant faces showed that the proposed method could achieve higher recognition accuracy than many other methods. For development and testing we used facial images from the AR and FERET databases. Using facial photographs of more than one thousand persons from the FERET database the proposed method achieved 96.6-98.9% first one recognition rate and 0.2-0.6% Equal Error Rate (EER).

* Unpublished manuscript. June 2005. 20 pages, 8 figures, 5 tables