Feature description is one of the most frequently studied areas in the expert systems and machine learning. Effective encoding of the images is an essential requirement for accurate matching. These encoding schemes play a significant role in recognition and retrieval systems. Facial recognition systems should be effective enough to accurately recognize individuals under intrinsic and extrinsic variations of the system. The templates or descriptors used in these systems encode spatial relationships of the pixels in the local neighbourhood of an image. Features encoded using these hand crafted descriptors should be robust against variations such as; illumination, background, poses, and expressions. In this paper a novel hand crafted cascaded asymmetric local pattern (CALP) is proposed for retrieval and recognition facial image. The proposed descriptor uniquely encodes relationship amongst the neighbouring pixels in horizontal and vertical directions. The proposed encoding scheme has optimum feature length and shows significant improvement in accuracy under environmental and physiological changes in a facial image. State of the art hand crafted descriptors namely; LBP, LDGP, CSLBP, SLBP and CSLTP are compared with the proposed descriptor on most challenging datasets namely; Caltech-face, LFW, and CASIA-face-v5. Result analysis shows that, the proposed descriptor outperforms state of the art under uncontrolled variations in expressions, background, pose and illumination.
Facial Expression Recognition is a vital research topic in most fields ranging from artificial intelligence and gaming to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Psychology. This paper proposes a hybrid model for Facial Expression recognition, which comprises a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) and Haar Cascade deep learning architectures. The objective is to classify real-time and digital facial images into one of the seven facial emotion categories considered. The DCNN employed in this research has more convolutional layers, ReLU Activation functions, and multiple kernels to enhance filtering depth and facial feature extraction. In addition, a haar cascade model was also mutually used to detect facial features in real-time images and video frames. Grayscale images from the Kaggle repository (FER-2013) and then exploited Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computation to expedite the training and validation process. Pre-processing and data augmentation techniques are applied to improve training efficiency and classification performance. The experimental results show a significantly improved classification performance compared to state-of-the-art (SoTA) experiments and research. Also, compared to other conventional models, this paper validates that the proposed architecture is superior in classification performance with an improvement of up to 6%, totaling up to 70% accuracy, and with less execution time of 2098.8s.
Deep neural networks have been widely used for feature learning in facial expression recognition systems. However, small datasets and large intra-class variability can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a method which learns an optimized compact network topology for real-time facial expression recognition utilizing localized facial landmark features. Our method employs a spatio-temporal bilinear layer as backbone to capture the motion of facial landmarks during the execution of a facial expression effectively. Besides, it takes advantage of Monte Carlo Dropout to capture the model's uncertainty which is of great importance to analyze and treat uncertain cases. The performance of our method is evaluated on three widely used datasets and it is comparable to that of video-based state-of-the-art methods while it has much less complexity.
The task of recognizing human facial expressions plays a vital role in various human-related systems, including health care and medical fields. With the recent success of deep learning and the accessibility of a large amount of annotated data, facial expression recognition research has been mature enough to be utilized in real-world scenarios with audio-visual datasets. In this paper, we introduce Swin transformer-based facial expression approach for an in-the-wild audio-visual dataset of the Aff-Wild2 Expression dataset. Specifically, we employ a three-stream network (i.e., Visual stream, Temporal stream, and Audio stream) for the audio-visual videos to fuse the multi-modal information into facial expression recognition. Experimental results on the Aff-Wild2 dataset show the effectiveness of our proposed multi-modal approaches.
Soft biometrics inference in surveillance scenarios is a topic of interest for various applications, particularly in security-related areas. However, soft biometric analysis is not extensively reported in wild conditions. In particular, previous works on gender recognition report their results in face datasets, with relatively good image quality and frontal poses. Given the uncertainty of the availability of the facial region in wild conditions, we consider that these methods are not adequate for surveillance settings. To overcome these limitations, we: 1) present frontal and wild face versions of three well-known surveillance datasets; and 2) propose a model that effectively and dynamically combines facial and body information, which makes it suitable for gender recognition in wild conditions. The frontal and wild face datasets derive from widely used Pedestrian Attribute Recognition (PAR) sets (PETA, PA-100K, and RAP), using a pose-based approach to filter the frontal samples and facial regions. This approach retrieves the facial region of images with varying image/subject conditions, where the state-of-the-art face detectors often fail. Our model combines facial and body information through a learnable fusion matrix and a channel-attention sub-network, focusing on the most influential body parts according to the specific image/subject features. We compare it with five PAR methods, consistently obtaining state-of-the-art results on gender recognition, and reducing the prediction errors by up to 24% in frontal samples. The announced PAR datasets versions and model serve as the basis for wild soft biometrics classification and are available in https://github.com/Tiago-Roxo.
In order to effectively prevent the spread of COVID-19 virus, almost everyone wears a mask during coronavirus epidemic. This almost makes conventional facial recognition technology ineffective in many cases, such as community access control, face access control, facial attendance, facial security checks at train stations, etc. Therefore, it is very urgent to improve the recognition performance of the existing face recognition technology on the masked faces. Most current advanced face recognition approaches are designed based on deep learning, which depend on a large number of face samples. However, at present, there are no publicly available masked face recognition datasets. To this end, this work proposes three types of masked face datasets, including Masked Face Detection Dataset (MFDD), Real-world Masked Face Recognition Dataset (RMFRD) and Simulated Masked Face Recognition Dataset (SMFRD). Among them, to the best of our knowledge, RMFRD is currently theworld's largest real-world masked face dataset. These datasets are freely available to industry and academia, based on which various applications on masked faces can be developed. The multi-granularity masked face recognition model we developed achieves 95% accuracy, exceeding the results reported by the industry. Our datasets are available at: https://github.com/X-zhangyang/Real-World-Masked-Face-Dataset.
Facial action units (AUs) recognition is essential for emotion analysis and has been widely applied in mental state analysis. Existing work on AU recognition usually requires big face dataset with AU labels; however, manual AU annotation requires expertise and can be time-consuming. In this work, we propose a semi-supervised approach for AU recognition utilizing a large number of web face images without AU labels and a relatively small face dataset with AU annotations inspired by the co-training methods. Unlike traditional co-training methods that require provided multi-view features and model re-training, we propose a novel co-training method, namely multi-label co-regularization, for semi-supervised facial AU recognition. Two deep neural networks are utilized to generate multi-view features for both labeled and unlabeled face images, and a multi-view loss is designed to enforce the two feature generators to get conditional independent representations. In order to constrain the prediction consistency of the two views, we further propose a multi-label co-regularization loss by minimizing the distance of the predicted AU probability distributions of two views. In addition, prior knowledge of the relationship between individual AUs is embedded through a graph convolutional network (GCN) for exploiting useful information from the big unlabeled dataset. Experiments on several benchmarks show that the proposed approach can effectively leverage large datasets of face images without AU labels to improve the AU recognition accuracy and outperform the state-of-the-art semi-supervised AU recognition methods.
Facial images in surveillance or mobile scenarios often have large view-point variations in terms of pitch and yaw angles. These jointly occurred angle variations make face recognition challenging. Current public face databases mainly consider the case of yaw variations. In this paper, a new large-scale Multi-yaw Multi-pitch high-quality database is proposed for Facial Pose Analysis (M2FPA), including face frontalization, face rotation, facial pose estimation and pose-invariant face recognition. It contains 397,544 images of 229 subjects with yaw, pitch, attribute, illumination and accessory. M2FPA is the most comprehensive multi-view face database for facial pose analysis. Further, we provide an effective benchmark for face frontalization and pose-invariant face recognition on M2FPA with several state-of-the-art methods, including DR-GAN, TP-GAN and CAPG-GAN. We believe that the new database and benchmark can significantly push forward the advance of facial pose analysis in real-world applications. Moreover, a simple yet effective parsing guided discriminator is introduced to capture the local consistency during GAN optimization. Extensive quantitative and qualitative results on M2FPA and Multi-PIE demonstrate the superiority of our face frontalization method. Baseline results for both face synthesis and face recognition from state-of-theart methods demonstrate the challenge offered by this new database.
Human exhibit rich gender cues in both appearance and behavior. In computer vision domain, gender recognition from facial appearance have been extensively studied, while facial behavior based gender recognition studies remain rare. In this work, we first demonstrate that facial expressions influence the gender patterns presented in 3D face, and gender recognition performance increases when training and testing within the same expression. In further, we design experiments which directly extract the morphological changes resulted from facial expressions as features, for expression-based gender recognition. Experimental results demonstrate that gender can be recognized with considerable accuracy in Happy and Disgust expressions, while Surprise and Sad expressions do not convey much gender related information. This is the first work in the literature which investigates expression-based gender classification with 3D faces, and reveals the strength of gender patterns incorporated in different types of expressions, namely the Happy, the Disgust, the Surprise and the Sad expressions.
Facial expression recognition in videos is an active area of research in computer vision. However, fake facial expressions are difficult to be recognized even by humans. On the other hand, facial micro-expressions generally represent the actual emotion of a person, as it is a spontaneous reaction expressed through human face. Despite of a few attempts made for recognizing micro-expressions, still the problem is far from being a solved problem, which is depicted by the poor rate of accuracy shown by the state-of-the-art methods. A few CNN based approaches are found in the literature to recognize micro-facial expressions from still images. Whereas, a spontaneous micro-expression video contains multiple frames that have to be processed together to encode both spatial and temporal information. This paper proposes two 3D-CNN methods: MicroExpSTCNN and MicroExpFuseNet, for spontaneous facial micro-expression recognition by exploiting the spatiotemporal information in CNN framework. The MicroExpSTCNN considers the full spatial information, whereas the MicroExpFuseNet is based on the 3D-CNN feature fusion of the eyes and mouth regions. The experiments are performed over CAS(ME)^2 and SMIC micro-expression databases. The proposed MicroExpSTCNN model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.