Facial recognition is changing the way we live in and interact with our society. Here we discuss the two sides of facial recognition, summarizing potential risks and current concerns. We introduce current policies and regulations in different countries. Very importantly, we point out that the risks and concerns are not only from facial recognition, but also realistically very similar to other biometric recognition technology, including but not limited to gait recognition, iris recognition, fingerprint recognition, voice recognition, etc. To create a responsible future, we discuss possible technological moves and efforts that should be made to keep facial recognition (and biometric recognition in general) developing for social good.
Automated facial identification and facial expression recognition have been topics of active research over the past few decades. Facial and expression recognition find applications in human-computer interfaces, subject tracking, real-time security surveillance systems and social networking. Several holistic and geometric methods have been developed to identify faces and expressions using public and local facial image databases. In this work we present the evolution in facial image data sets and the methodologies for facial identification and recognition of expressions such as anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear and surprise. We observe that most of the earlier methods for facial and expression recognition aimed at improving the recognition rates for facial feature-based methods using static images. However, the recent methodologies have shifted focus towards robust implementation of facial/expression recognition from large image databases that vary with space (gathered from the internet) and time (video recordings). The evolution trends in databases and methodologies for facial and expression recognition can be useful for assessing the next-generation topics that may have applications in security systems or personal identification systems that involve "Quantitative face" assessments.
Facial action unit recognition is an important task for facial analysis. Owing to the complex collection environment, facial action unit recognition in the wild is still challenging. The 3rd competition on affective behavior analysis in-the-wild (ABAW) has provided large amount of facial images with facial action unit annotations. In this paper, we introduce a facial action unit recognition method based on transfer learning. We first use available facial images with expression labels to train the feature extraction network. Then we fine-tune the network for facial action unit recognition.
Current works formulate facial action unit (AU) recognition as a supervised learning problem, requiring fully AU-labeled facial images during training. It is challenging if not impossible to provide AU annotations for large numbers of facial images. Fortunately, AUs appear on all facial images, whether manually labeled or not, satisfy the underlying anatomic mechanisms and human behavioral habits. In this paper, we propose a deep semi-supervised framework for facial action unit recognition from partially AU-labeled facial images. Specifically, the proposed deep semi-supervised AU recognition approach consists of a deep recognition network and a discriminator D. The deep recognition network R learns facial representations from large-scale facial images and AU classifiers from limited ground truth AU labels. The discriminator D is introduced to enforce statistical similarity between the AU distribution inherent in ground truth AU labels and the distribution of the predicted AU labels from labeled and unlabeled facial images. The deep recognition network aims to minimize recognition loss from the labeled facial images, to faithfully represent inherent AU distribution for both labeled and unlabeled facial images, and to confuse the discriminator. During training, the deep recognition network R and the discriminator D are optimized alternately. Thus, the inherent AU distributions caused by underlying anatomic mechanisms are leveraged to construct better feature representations and AU classifiers from partially AU-labeled data during training. Experiments on two benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully captures AU distributions through adversarial learning and outperforms state-of-the-art AU recognition work.
This work explores facial expression bias as a security vulnerability of face recognition systems. Face recognition technology has experienced great advances during the last decades. However, despite the great performance achieved by state of the art face recognition systems, the algorithms are still sensitive to a large range of covariates. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of how facial expression bias impacts the performance of face recognition technologies. Our study analyzes: i) facial expression biases in the most popular face recognition databases; and ii) the impact of facial expression in face recognition performances. Our experimental framework includes four face detectors, three face recognition models, and four different databases. Our results demonstrate a huge facial expression bias in the most widely used databases, as well as a related impact of face expression in the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. This work opens the door to new research lines focused on mitigating the observed vulnerability.
Facial expression recognition is a challenging task when neural network is applied to pattern recognition. Most of the current recognition research is based on single source facial data, which generally has the disadvantages of low accuracy and low robustness. In this paper, a neural network algorithm of facial expression recognition based on multimodal data fusion is proposed. The algorithm is based on the multimodal data, and it takes the facial image, the histogram of oriented gradient of the image and the facial landmarks as the input, and establishes CNN, LNN and HNN three sub neural networks to extract data features, using multimodal data feature fusion mechanism to improve the accuracy of facial expression recognition. Experimental results show that, benefiting by the complementarity of multimodal data, the algorithm has a great improvement in accuracy, robustness and detection speed compared with the traditional facial expression recognition algorithm. Especially in the case of partial occlusion, illumination and head posture transformation, the algorithm also shows a high confidence.
Extraction of discriminative features from salient facial patches plays a vital role in effective facial expression recognition. The accurate detection of facial landmarks improves the localization of the salient patches on face images. This paper proposes a novel framework for expression recognition by using appearance features of selected facial patches. A few prominent facial patches, depending on the position of facial landmarks, are extracted which are active during emotion elicitation. These active patches are further processed to obtain the salient patches which contain discriminative features for classification of each pair of expressions, thereby selecting different facial patches as salient for different pair of expression classes. One-against-one classification method is adopted using these features. In addition, an automated learning-free facial landmark detection technique has been proposed, which achieves similar performances as that of other state-of-art landmark detection methods, yet requires significantly less execution time. The proposed method is found to perform well consistently in different resolutions, hence, providing a solution for expression recognition in low resolution images. Experiments on CK+ and JAFFE facial expression databases show the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to communicate their emotions and intensions. Recognition of facial expression has many applications including human-computer interaction, cognitive science, human emotion analysis, personality development etc. In this paper, we propose a new method for the recognition of facial expressions from single image frame that uses combination of appearance and geometric features with support vector machines classification. In general, appearance features for the recognition of facial expressions are computed by dividing face region into regular grid (holistic representation). But, in this paper we extracted region specific appearance features by dividing the whole face region into domain specific local regions. Geometric features are also extracted from corresponding domain specific regions. In addition, important local regions are determined by using incremental search approach which results in the reduction of feature dimension and improvement in recognition accuracy. The results of facial expressions recognition using features from domain specific regions are also compared with the results obtained using holistic representation. The performance of the proposed facial expression recognition system has been validated on publicly available extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression data sets.
Facial expression recognition is a challenging task due to two major problems: the presence of inter-subject variations in facial expression recognition dataset and impure expressions posed by human subjects. In this paper we present a novel Human-to-Animation conditional Generative Adversarial Network (HA-GAN) to overcome these two problems by using many (human faces) to one (animated face) mapping. Specifically, for any given input human expression image, our HA-GAN transfers the expression information from the input image to a fixed animated identity. Stylized animated characters from the Facial Expression Research Group-Database (FERGDB) are used for the generation of fixed identity. By learning this many-to-one identity mapping function using our proposed HA-GAN, the effect of inter-subject variations can be reduced in Facial Expression Recognition(FER). We also argue that the expressions in the generated animated images are pure expressions and since FER is performed on these generated images, the performance of facial expression recognition is improved. Our initial experimental results on the state-of-the-art datasets show that facial expression recognition carried out on the generated animated images using our HA-GAN framework outperforms the baseline deep neural network and produces comparable or even better results than the state-of-the-art methods for facial expression recognition.
We introduce a deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) architecture to classify facial attributes and recognize face images simultaneously via a shared learning paradigm to improve the accuracy for facial attribute prediction and face recognition performance. In this method, we use facial attributes as an auxiliary source of information to assist CNN features extracted from the face images to improve the face recognition performance. Specifically, we use a shared CNN architecture that jointly predicts facial attributes and recognize face images simultaneously via a shared learning parameters, and then we use facial attribute features an an auxiliary source of information concatenated by face features to increase the discrimination of the CNN for face recognition. This process assists the CNN classifier to better recognize face images. The experimental results show that our model increases both the face recognition and facial attribute prediction performance, especially for the identity attributes such as gender and race. We evaluated our method on several standard datasets labeled by identities and face attributes and the results show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art face recognition models.