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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

A Review of Generative Adversarial Networks in Cancer Imaging: New Applications, New Solutions

Jul 20, 2021
Richard Osuala, Kaisar Kushibar, Lidia Garrucho, Akis Linardos, Zuzanna Szafranowska, Stefan Klein, Ben Glocker, Oliver Diaz, Karim Lekadir

Despite technological and medical advances, the detection, interpretation, and treatment of cancer based on imaging data continue to pose significant challenges. These include high inter-observer variability, difficulty of small-sized lesion detection, nodule interpretation and malignancy determination, inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity, class imbalance, segmentation inaccuracies, and treatment effect uncertainty. The recent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in computer vision as well as in medical imaging may provide a basis for enhanced capabilities in cancer detection and analysis. In this review, we assess the potential of GANs to address a number of key challenges of cancer imaging, including data scarcity and imbalance, domain and dataset shifts, data access and privacy, data annotation and quantification, as well as cancer detection, tumour profiling and treatment planning. We provide a critical appraisal of the existing literature of GANs applied to cancer imagery, together with suggestions on future research directions to address these challenges. We analyse and discuss 163 papers that apply adversarial training techniques in the context of cancer imaging and elaborate their methodologies, advantages and limitations. With this work, we strive to bridge the gap between the needs of the clinical cancer imaging community and the current and prospective research on GANs in the artificial intelligence community.

* 64 pages, v1, preprint submitted to Elsevier, Oliver Diaz and Karim Lekadir contributed equally to this work 
  

Identifying Women with Mammographically-Occult Breast Cancer Leveraging GAN-Simulated Mammograms

Sep 24, 2021
Juhun Lee, Robert M. Nishikawa

Our objective is to show the feasibility of using simulated mammograms to detect mammographically-occult (MO) cancer in women with dense breasts and a normal screening mammogram who could be triaged for additional screening with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound. We developed a Conditional Generative Adversarial Network (CGAN) to simulate a mammogram with normal appearance using the opposite mammogram as the condition. We used a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) trained on Radon Cumulative Distribution Transform (RCDT) processed mammograms to detect MO cancer. For training CGAN, we used screening mammograms of 1366 women. For MO cancer detection, we used screening mammograms of 333 women (97 MO cancer) with dense breasts. We simulated the right mammogram for normal controls and the cancer side for MO cancer cases. We created two RCDT images, one from a real mammogram pair and another from a real-simulated mammogram pair. We finetuned a VGG16 on resulting RCDT images to classify the women with MO cancer. We compared the classification performance of the CNN trained on fused RCDT images, CNN_{Fused} to that of trained only on real RCDT images, CNN_{Real}, and to that of trained only on simulated RCDT images, CNN_{Simulated}. The test AUC for CNN_{Fused} was 0.77 with a 95% confidence interval (95CI) of [0.71, 0.83], which was statistically better (p-value < 0.02) than the CNN_{Real} AUC of 0.70 with a 95CI of [0.64, 0.77] and CNN_{Simulated} AUC of 0.68 with a 95CI of [0.62, 0.75]. It showed that CGAN simulated mammograms can help MO cancer detection.

* This article has been accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. This is the author's version which has not been fully edited and content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TMI.2021.3108949. \c{opyright} 2021 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission 
  

A new semi-supervised self-training method for lung cancer prediction

Dec 17, 2020
Kelvin Shak, Mundher Al-Shabi, Andrea Liew, Boon Leong Lan, Wai Yee Chan, Kwan Hoong Ng, Maxine Tan

Background and Objective: Early detection of lung cancer is crucial as it has high mortality rate with patients commonly present with the disease at stage 3 and above. There are only relatively few methods that simultaneously detect and classify nodules from computed tomography (CT) scans. Furthermore, very few studies have used semi-supervised learning for lung cancer prediction. This study presents a complete end-to-end scheme to detect and classify lung nodules using the state-of-the-art Self-training with Noisy Student method on a comprehensive CT lung screening dataset of around 4,000 CT scans. Methods: We used three datasets, namely LUNA16, LIDC and NLST, for this study. We first utilise a three-dimensional deep convolutional neural network model to detect lung nodules in the detection stage. The classification model known as Maxout Local-Global Network uses non-local networks to detect global features including shape features, residual blocks to detect local features including nodule texture, and a Maxout layer to detect nodule variations. We trained the first Self-training with Noisy Student model to predict lung cancer on the unlabelled NLST datasets. Then, we performed Mixup regularization to enhance our scheme and provide robustness to erroneous labels. Results and Conclusions: Our new Mixup Maxout Local-Global network achieves an AUC of 0.87 on 2,005 completely independent testing scans from the NLST dataset. Our new scheme significantly outperformed the next highest performing method at the 5% significance level using DeLong's test (p = 0.0001). This study presents a new complete end-to-end scheme to predict lung cancer using Self-training with Noisy Student combined with Mixup regularization. On a completely independent dataset of 2,005 scans, we achieved state-of-the-art performance even with more images as compared to other methods.

* 23 pages, 6 figures 
  

Discovery Radiomics via Deep Multi-Column Radiomic Sequencers for Skin Cancer Detection

Sep 24, 2017
Mohammad Javad Shafiee, Alexander Wong

While skin cancer is the most diagnosed form of cancer in men and women, with more cases diagnosed each year than all other cancers combined, sufficiently early diagnosis results in very good prognosis and as such makes early detection crucial. While radiomics have shown considerable promise as a powerful diagnostic tool for significantly improving oncological diagnostic accuracy and efficiency, current radiomics-driven methods have largely rely on pre-defined, hand-crafted quantitative features, which can greatly limit the ability to fully characterize unique cancer phenotype that distinguish it from healthy tissue. Recently, the notion of discovery radiomics was introduced, where a large amount of custom, quantitative radiomic features are directly discovered from the wealth of readily available medical imaging data. In this study, we present a novel discovery radiomics framework for skin cancer detection, where we leverage novel deep multi-column radiomic sequencers for high-throughput discovery and extraction of a large amount of custom radiomic features tailored for characterizing unique skin cancer tissue phenotype. The discovered radiomic sequencer was tested against 9,152 biopsy-proven clinical images comprising of different skin cancers such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, and demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 75%, respectively, thus achieving dermatologist-level performance and \break hence can be a powerful tool for assisting general practitioners and dermatologists alike in improving the efficiency, consistency, and accuracy of skin cancer diagnosis.

  

Cancer Metastasis Detection With Neural Conditional Random Field

Jun 19, 2018
Yi Li, Wei Ping

Breast cancer diagnosis often requires accurate detection of metastasis in lymph nodes through Whole-slide Images (WSIs). Recent advances in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown significant successes in medical image analysis and particularly in computational histopathology. Because of the outrageous large size of WSIs, most of the methods divide one slide into lots of small image patches and perform classification on each patch independently. However, neighboring patches often share spatial correlations, and ignoring these spatial correlations may result in inconsistent predictions. In this paper, we propose a neural conditional random field (NCRF) deep learning framework to detect cancer metastasis in WSIs. NCRF considers the spatial correlations between neighboring patches through a fully connected CRF which is directly incorporated on top of a CNN feature extractor. The whole deep network can be trained end-to-end with standard back-propagation algorithm with minor computational overhead from the CRF component. The CNN feature extractor can also benefit from considering spatial correlations via the CRF component. Compared to the baseline method without considering spatial correlations, we show that the proposed NCRF framework obtains probability maps of patch predictions with better visual quality. We also demonstrate that our method outperforms the baseline in cancer metastasis detection on the Camelyon16 dataset and achieves an average FROC score of 0.8096 on the test set. NCRF is open sourced at https://github.com/baidu-research/NCRF.

* 9 pages, 5 figures, MIDL 2018 
  

Automatic Application Level Set Approach in Detection Calcifications in Mammographic Image

Sep 01, 2011
Atef Boujelben, Hedi Tmar, Jameleddine Mnif, Mohamed Abid

Breast cancer is considered as one of a major health problem that constitutes the strongest cause behind mortality among women in the world. So, in this decade, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer, in term of appearance frequency, and the fifth most common cause of cancer related death. In order to reduce the workload on radiologists, a variety of CAD systems; Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CADi) and Computer-Aided Detection (CADe) have been proposed. In this paper, we interested on CADe tool to help radiologist to detect cancer. The proposed CADe is based on a three-step work flow; namely, detection, analysis and classification. This paper deals with the problem of automatic detection of Region Of Interest (ROI) based on Level Set approach depended on edge and region criteria. This approach gives good visual information from the radiologist. After that, the features extraction using textures characteristics and the vector classification using Multilayer Perception (MLP) and k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) are adopted to distinguish different ACR (American College of Radiology) classification. Moreover, we use the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) for experiments and these results in term of accuracy varied between 60 % and 70% are acceptable and must be ameliorated to aid radiologist.

* 14 pages, 9 figures 
  

Detecting Cancer Metastases on Gigapixel Pathology Images

Mar 08, 2017
Yun Liu, Krishna Gadepalli, Mohammad Norouzi, George E. Dahl, Timo Kohlberger, Aleksey Boyko, Subhashini Venugopalan, Aleksei Timofeev, Philip Q. Nelson, Greg S. Corrado, Jason D. Hipp, Lily Peng, Martin C. Stumpe

Each year, the treatment decisions for more than 230,000 breast cancer patients in the U.S. hinge on whether the cancer has metastasized away from the breast. Metastasis detection is currently performed by pathologists reviewing large expanses of biological tissues. This process is labor intensive and error-prone. We present a framework to automatically detect and localize tumors as small as 100 x 100 pixels in gigapixel microscopy images sized 100,000 x 100,000 pixels. Our method leverages a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture and obtains state-of-the-art results on the Camelyon16 dataset in the challenging lesion-level tumor detection task. At 8 false positives per image, we detect 92.4% of the tumors, relative to 82.7% by the previous best automated approach. For comparison, a human pathologist attempting exhaustive search achieved 73.2% sensitivity. We achieve image-level AUC scores above 97% on both the Camelyon16 test set and an independent set of 110 slides. In addition, we discover that two slides in the Camelyon16 training set were erroneously labeled normal. Our approach could considerably reduce false negative rates in metastasis detection.

* Fig 1: normal and tumor patches were accidentally reversed - now fixed. Minor grammatical corrections in appendix, section "Image Color Normalization" 
  

Noncoding RNAs and deep learning neural network discriminate multi-cancer types

Mar 01, 2021
Anyou Wang, Rong Hai, Paul J Rider, Harrison Dulin

Detecting cancers at early stages can dramatically reduce mortality rates. Therefore, practical cancer screening at the population level is needed. Here, we develop a comprehensive detection system to classify all common cancer types. By integrating artificial intelligence deep learning neural network and noncoding RNA biomarkers selected from massive data, our system can accurately detect cancer vs healthy object with 96.3% of AUC of ROC (Area Under Curve of a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve). Intriguinely, with no more than 6 biomarkers, our approach can easily discriminate any individual cancer type vs normal with 99% to 100% AUC. Furthermore, a comprehensive marker panel can simultaneously multi-classify all common cancers with a stable 78% of accuracy at heterological cancerous tissues and conditions. This provides a valuable framework for large scale cancer screening. The AI models and plots of results were available in https://combai.org/ai/cancerdetection/

* 7 pages and 3 figures 
  

Federated Learning with Research Prototypes for Multi-Center MRI-based Detection of Prostate Cancer with Diverse Histopathology

Jun 11, 2022
Abhejit Rajagopal, Ekaterina Redekop, Anil Kemisetti, Rushi Kulkarni, Steven Raman, Kirti Magudia, Corey W. Arnold, Peder E. Z. Larson

Early prostate cancer detection and staging from MRI are extremely challenging tasks for both radiologists and deep learning algorithms, but the potential to learn from large and diverse datasets remains a promising avenue to increase their generalization capability both within- and across clinics. To enable this for prototype-stage algorithms, where the majority of existing research remains, in this paper we introduce a flexible federated learning framework for cross-site training, validation, and evaluation of deep prostate cancer detection algorithms. Our approach utilizes an abstracted representation of the model architecture and data, which allows unpolished prototype deep learning models to be trained without modification using the NVFlare federated learning framework. Our results show increases in prostate cancer detection and classification accuracy using a specialized neural network model and diverse prostate biopsy data collected at two University of California research hospitals, demonstrating the efficacy of our approach in adapting to different datasets and improving MR-biomarker discovery. We open-source our FLtools system, which can be easily adapted to other deep learning projects for medical imaging.

* under review 
  

Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Wavelet Analysis of Protein Mass Spectra

Jul 14, 2022
Dixon Vimalajeewa, Scott Alan Bruce, Brani Vidakovic

Accurate and efficient detection of ovarian cancer at early stages is critical to ensure proper treatments for patients. Among the first-line modalities investigated in studies of early diagnosis are features distilled from protein mass spectra. This method, however, considers only a specific subset of spectral responses and ignores the interplay among protein expression levels, which can also contain diagnostic information. We propose a new modality that automatically searches protein mass spectra for discriminatory features by considering the self-similar nature of the spectra. Self-similarity is assessed by taking a wavelet decomposition of protein mass spectra and estimating the rate of level-wise decay in the energies of the resulting wavelet coefficients. Level-wise energies are estimated in a robust manner using distance variance, and rates are estimated locally via a rolling window approach. This results in a collection of rates that can be used to characterize the interplay among proteins, which can be indicative of cancer presence. Discriminatory descriptors are then selected from these evolutionary rates and used as classifying features. The proposed wavelet-based features are used in conjunction with features proposed in the existing literature for early stage diagnosis of ovarian cancer using two datasets published by the American National Cancer Institute. Including the wavelet-based features from the new modality results in improvements in diagnostic performance for early-stage ovarian cancer detection. This demonstrates the ability of the proposed modality to characterize new ovarian cancer diagnostic information.

* Pages 18, 8 figures 
  
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