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"Sentiment": models, code, and papers

Bilingual Sentiment Embeddings: Joint Projection of Sentiment Across Languages

May 23, 2018
Jeremy Barnes, Roman Klinger, Sabine Schulte im Walde

Sentiment analysis in low-resource languages suffers from a lack of annotated corpora to estimate high-performing models. Machine translation and bilingual word embeddings provide some relief through cross-lingual sentiment approaches. However, they either require large amounts of parallel data or do not sufficiently capture sentiment information. We introduce Bilingual Sentiment Embeddings (BLSE), which jointly represent sentiment information in a source and target language. This model only requires a small bilingual lexicon, a source-language corpus annotated for sentiment, and monolingual word embeddings for each language. We perform experiments on three language combinations (Spanish, Catalan, Basque) for sentence-level cross-lingual sentiment classification and find that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods on four out of six experimental setups, as well as capturing complementary information to machine translation. Our analysis of the resulting embedding space provides evidence that it represents sentiment information in the resource-poor target language without any annotated data in that language.

* Accepted to ACL 2018 (Long Papers) 

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Sentiment Word Aware Multimodal Refinement for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis with ASR Errors

Mar 01, 2022
Yang Wu, Yanyan Zhao, Hao Yang, Song Chen, Bing Qin, Xiaohuan Cao, Wenting Zhao

Multimodal sentiment analysis has attracted increasing attention and lots of models have been proposed. However, the performance of the state-of-the-art models decreases sharply when they are deployed in the real world. We find that the main reason is that real-world applications can only access the text outputs by the automatic speech recognition (ASR) models, which may be with errors because of the limitation of model capacity. Through further analysis of the ASR outputs, we find that in some cases the sentiment words, the key sentiment elements in the textual modality, are recognized as other words, which makes the sentiment of the text change and hurts the performance of multimodal sentiment models directly. To address this problem, we propose the sentiment word aware multimodal refinement model (SWRM), which can dynamically refine the erroneous sentiment words by leveraging multimodal sentiment clues. Specifically, we first use the sentiment word position detection module to obtain the most possible position of the sentiment word in the text and then utilize the multimodal sentiment word refinement module to dynamically refine the sentiment word embeddings. The refined embeddings are taken as the textual inputs of the multimodal feature fusion module to predict the sentiment labels. We conduct extensive experiments on the real-world datasets including MOSI-Speechbrain, MOSI-IBM, and MOSI-iFlytek and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, which surpasses the current state-of-the-art models on three datasets. Furthermore, our approach can be adapted for other multimodal feature fusion models easily. Data and code are available at https://github.com/albertwy/SWRM.

* Findings of ACL 2022 

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Eliminating Sentiment Bias for Aspect-Level Sentiment Classification with Unsupervised Opinion Extraction

Sep 07, 2021
Bo Wang, Tao Shen, Guodong Long, Tianyi Zhou, Yi Chang

Aspect-level sentiment classification (ALSC) aims at identifying the sentiment polarity of a specified aspect in a sentence. ALSC is a practical setting in aspect-based sentiment analysis due to no opinion term labeling needed, but it fails to interpret why a sentiment polarity is derived for the aspect. To address this problem, recent works fine-tune pre-trained Transformer encoders for ALSC to extract an aspect-centric dependency tree that can locate the opinion words. However, the induced opinion words only provide an intuitive cue far below human-level interpretability. Besides, the pre-trained encoder tends to internalize an aspect's intrinsic sentiment, causing sentiment bias and thus affecting model performance. In this paper, we propose a span-based anti-bias aspect representation learning framework. It first eliminates the sentiment bias in the aspect embedding by adversarial learning against aspects' prior sentiment. Then, it aligns the distilled opinion candidates with the aspect by span-based dependency modeling to highlight the interpretable opinion terms. Our method achieves new state-of-the-art performance on five benchmarks, with the capability of unsupervised opinion extraction.

* 11 pages, Findings of EMNLP'2021, 7th-11th November 2021 

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Sentiment-Aware Measure (SAM) for Evaluating Sentiment Transfer by Machine Translation Systems

Oct 05, 2021
Hadeel Saadany, Constantin Orasan, Emad Mohamed, Ashraf Tantawy

In translating text where sentiment is the main message, human translators give particular attention to sentiment-carrying words. The reason is that an incorrect translation of such words would miss the fundamental aspect of the source text, i.e. the author's sentiment. In the online world, MT systems are extensively used to translate User-Generated Content (UGC) such as reviews, tweets, and social media posts, where the main message is often the author's positive or negative attitude towards the topic of the text. It is important in such scenarios to accurately measure how far an MT system can be a reliable real-life utility in transferring the correct affect message. This paper tackles an under-recognised problem in the field of machine translation evaluation which is judging to what extent automatic metrics concur with the gold standard of human evaluation for a correct translation of sentiment. We evaluate the efficacy of conventional quality metrics in spotting a mistranslation of sentiment, especially when it is the sole error in the MT output. We propose a numerical `sentiment-closeness' measure appropriate for assessing the accuracy of a translated affect message in UGC text by an MT system. We will show that incorporating this sentiment-aware measure can significantly enhance the correlation of some available quality metrics with the human judgement of an accurate translation of sentiment.

* RANLP (RECENT ADVANCES IN NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING) (2021) 
* Accepted for RANLP (Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing) 2021 

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SentiPrompt: Sentiment Knowledge Enhanced Prompt-Tuning for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis

Sep 17, 2021
Chengxi Li, Feiyu Gao, Jiajun Bu, Lu Xu, Xiang Chen, Yu Gu, Zirui Shao, Qi Zheng, Ningyu Zhang, Yongpan Wang, Zhi Yu

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is an emerging fine-grained sentiment analysis task that aims to extract aspects, classify corresponding sentiment polarities and find opinions as the causes of sentiment. The latest research tends to solve the ABSA task in a unified way with end-to-end frameworks. Yet, these frameworks get fine-tuned from downstream tasks without any task-adaptive modification. Specifically, they do not use task-related knowledge well or explicitly model relations between aspect and opinion terms, hindering them from better performance. In this paper, we propose SentiPrompt to use sentiment knowledge enhanced prompts to tune the language model in the unified framework. We inject sentiment knowledge regarding aspects, opinions, and polarities into prompt and explicitly model term relations via constructing consistency and polarity judgment templates from the ground truth triplets. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach can outperform strong baselines on Triplet Extraction, Pair Extraction, and Aspect Term Extraction with Sentiment Classification by a notable margin.

* 7pages, under blind review 

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Modeling Sentiment Dependencies with Graph Convolutional Networks for Aspect-level Sentiment Classification

Jun 11, 2019
Pinlong Zhaoa, Linlin Houb, Ou Wua

Aspect-level sentiment classification aims to distinguish the sentiment polarities over one or more aspect terms in a sentence. Existing approaches mostly model different aspects in one sentence independently, which ignore the sentiment dependencies between different aspects. However, we find such dependency information between different aspects can bring additional valuable information. In this paper, we propose a novel aspect-level sentiment classification model based on graph convolutional networks (GCN) which can effectively capture the sentiment dependencies between multi-aspects in one sentence. Our model firstly introduces bidirectional attention mechanism with position encoding to model aspect-specific representations between each aspect and its context words, then employs GCN over the attention mechanism to capture the sentiment dependencies between different aspects in one sentence. We evaluate the proposed approach on the SemEval 2014 datasets. Experiments show that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. We also conduct experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of GCN module, which indicates that the dependencies between different aspects is highly helpful in aspect-level sentiment classification.


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Sentiment of Emojis

Dec 08, 2015
Petra Kralj Novak, Jasmina Smailović, Borut Sluban, Igor Mozetič

There is a new generation of emoticons, called emojis, that is increasingly being used in mobile communications and social media. In the past two years, over ten billion emojis were used on Twitter. Emojis are Unicode graphic symbols, used as a shorthand to express concepts and ideas. In contrast to the small number of well-known emoticons that carry clear emotional contents, there are hundreds of emojis. But what are their emotional contents? We provide the first emoji sentiment lexicon, called the Emoji Sentiment Ranking, and draw a sentiment map of the 751 most frequently used emojis. The sentiment of the emojis is computed from the sentiment of the tweets in which they occur. We engaged 83 human annotators to label over 1.6 million tweets in 13 European languages by the sentiment polarity (negative, neutral, or positive). About 4% of the annotated tweets contain emojis. The sentiment analysis of the emojis allows us to draw several interesting conclusions. It turns out that most of the emojis are positive, especially the most popular ones. The sentiment distribution of the tweets with and without emojis is significantly different. The inter-annotator agreement on the tweets with emojis is higher. Emojis tend to occur at the end of the tweets, and their sentiment polarity increases with the distance. We observe no significant differences in the emoji rankings between the 13 languages and the Emoji Sentiment Ranking. Consequently, we propose our Emoji Sentiment Ranking as a European language-independent resource for automated sentiment analysis. Finally, the paper provides a formalization of sentiment and a novel visualization in the form of a sentiment bar.

* PLoS ONE 10(12): e0144296, 2015 

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Diving Deep into Sentiment: Understanding Fine-tuned CNNs for Visual Sentiment Prediction

Aug 24, 2015
Victor Campos, Amaia Salvador, Brendan Jou, Xavier Giró-i-Nieto

Visual media are powerful means of expressing emotions and sentiments. The constant generation of new content in social networks highlights the need of automated visual sentiment analysis tools. While Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have established a new state-of-the-art in several vision problems, their application to the task of sentiment analysis is mostly unexplored and there are few studies regarding how to design CNNs for this purpose. In this work, we study the suitability of fine-tuning a CNN for visual sentiment prediction as well as explore performance boosting techniques within this deep learning setting. Finally, we provide a deep-dive analysis into a benchmark, state-of-the-art network architecture to gain insight about how to design patterns for CNNs on the task of visual sentiment prediction.

* Preprint of the paper accepted at the 1st Workshop on Affect and Sentiment in Multimedia (ASM), in ACM MultiMedia 2015. Brisbane, Australia 

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Multi-Aspect Sentiment Analysis with Latent Sentiment-Aspect Attribution

Dec 15, 2020
Yifan Zhang, Fan Yang, Marjan Hosseinia, Arjun Mukherjee

In this paper, we introduce a new framework called the sentiment-aspect attribution module (SAAM). SAAM works on top of traditional neural networks and is designed to address the problem of multi-aspect sentiment classification and sentiment regression. The framework works by exploiting the correlations between sentence-level embedding features and variations of document-level aspect rating scores. We demonstrate several variations of our framework on top of CNN and RNN based models. Experiments on a hotel review dataset and a beer review dataset have shown SAAM can improve sentiment analysis performance over corresponding base models. Moreover, because of the way our framework intuitively combines sentence-level scores into document-level scores, it is able to provide a deeper insight into data (e.g., semi-supervised sentence aspect labeling). Hence, we end the paper with a detailed analysis that shows the potential of our models for other applications such as sentiment snippet extraction.

* 8 pages, published in The 2020 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT 2020) 

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