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"Information Extraction": models, code, and papers

WYSIWYE: An Algebra for Expressing Spatial and Textual Rules for Visual Information Extraction

Sep 27, 2016
Vijil Chenthamarakshan, Prasad M Desphande, Raghu Krishnapuram, Ramakrishna Varadarajan, Knut Stolze

The visual layout of a webpage can provide valuable clues for certain types of Information Extraction (IE) tasks. In traditional rule based IE frameworks, these layout cues are mapped to rules that operate on the HTML source of the webpages. In contrast, we have developed a framework in which the rules can be specified directly at the layout level. This has many advantages, since the higher level of abstraction leads to simpler extraction rules that are largely independent of the source code of the page, and, therefore, more robust. It can also enable specification of new types of rules that are not otherwise possible. To the best of our knowledge, there is no general framework that allows declarative specification of information extraction rules based on spatial layout. Our framework is complementary to traditional text based rules framework and allows a seamless combination of spatial layout based rules with traditional text based rules. We describe the algebra that enables such a system and its efficient implementation using standard relational and text indexing features of a relational database. We demonstrate the simplicity and efficiency of this system for a task involving the extraction of software system requirements from software product pages.

  
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MAVE: A Product Dataset for Multi-source Attribute Value Extraction

Dec 16, 2021
Li Yang, Qifan Wang, Zac Yu, Anand Kulkarni, Sumit Sanghai, Bin Shu, Jon Elsas, Bhargav Kanagal

Attribute value extraction refers to the task of identifying values of an attribute of interest from product information. Product attribute values are essential in many e-commerce scenarios, such as customer service robots, product ranking, retrieval and recommendations. While in the real world, the attribute values of a product are usually incomplete and vary over time, which greatly hinders the practical applications. In this paper, we introduce MAVE, a new dataset to better facilitate research on product attribute value extraction. MAVE is composed of a curated set of 2.2 million products from Amazon pages, with 3 million attribute-value annotations across 1257 unique categories. MAVE has four main and unique advantages: First, MAVE is the largest product attribute value extraction dataset by the number of attribute-value examples. Second, MAVE includes multi-source representations from the product, which captures the full product information with high attribute coverage. Third, MAVE represents a more diverse set of attributes and values relative to what previous datasets cover. Lastly, MAVE provides a very challenging zero-shot test set, as we empirically illustrate in the experiments. We further propose a novel approach that effectively extracts the attribute value from the multi-source product information. We conduct extensive experiments with several baselines and show that MAVE is an effective dataset for attribute value extraction task. It is also a very challenging task on zero-shot attribute extraction. Data is available at {\it \url{https://github.com/google-research-datasets/MAVE}}.

* 10 pages, 7 figures. Accepted to WSDM 2022. Dataset available at https://github.com/google-research-datasets/MAVE 
  
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COVID-19 Knowledge Graph: Accelerating Information Retrieval and Discovery for Scientific Literature

Jul 24, 2020
Colby Wise, Vassilis N. Ioannidis, Miguel Romero Calvo, Xiang Song, George Price, Ninad Kulkarni, Ryan Brand, Parminder Bhatia, George Karypis

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has claimed the lives of over 350,000 people and infected more than 6 million people worldwide. Several search engines have surfaced to provide researchers with additional tools to find and retrieve information from the rapidly growing corpora on COVID-19. These engines lack extraction and visualization tools necessary to retrieve and interpret complex relations inherent to scientific literature. Moreover, because these engines mainly rely upon semantic information, their ability to capture complex global relationships across documents is limited, which reduces the quality of similarity-based article recommendations for users. In this work, we present the COVID-19 Knowledge Graph (CKG), a heterogeneous graph for extracting and visualizing complex relationships between COVID-19 scientific articles. The CKG combines semantic information with document topological information for the application of similar document retrieval. The CKG is constructed using the latent schema of the data, and then enriched with biomedical entity information extracted from the unstructured text of articles using scalable AWS technologies to form relations in the graph. Finally, we propose a document similarity engine that leverages low-dimensional graph embeddings from the CKG with semantic embeddings for similar article retrieval. Analysis demonstrates the quality of relationships in the CKG and shows that it can be used to uncover meaningful information in COVID-19 scientific articles. The CKG helps power www.cord19.aws and is publicly available.

  
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Renormalized Mutual Information for Extraction of Continuous Features

May 04, 2020
Leopoldo Sarra, Andrea Aiello, Florian Marquardt

We derive a well-defined renormalized version of mutual information that allows to estimate the dependence between continuous random variables in the important case when one is deterministically dependent on the other. This is the situation relevant for feature extraction and for information processing in artificial neural networks. We illustrate in basic examples how the renormalized mutual information can be used not only to compare the usefulness of different ansatz features, but also to automatically extract optimal features of a system in an unsupervised dimensionality reduction scenario.

  
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An Ontology-Based Information Extraction System for Residential Land Use Suitability Analysis

Sep 16, 2021
Munira Al-Ageili, Malek Mouhoub

We propose an Ontology-Based Information Extraction (OBIE) system to automate the extraction of the criteria and values applied in Land Use Suitability Analysis (LUSA) from bylaw and regulation documents related to the geographic area of interest. The results obtained by our proposed LUSA OBIE system (land use suitability criteria and their values) are presented as an ontology populated with instances of the extracted criteria and property values. This latter output ontology is incorporated into a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model applied for constructing suitability maps for different kinds of land uses. The resulting maps may be the final desired product or can be incorporated into the cellular automata urban modeling and simulation for predicting future urban growth. A case study has been conducted where the output from LUSA OBIE is applied to help produce a suitability map for the City of Regina, Saskatchewan, to assist in the identification of suitable areas for residential development. A set of Saskatchewan bylaw and regulation documents were downloaded and input to the LUSA OBIE system. We accessed the extracted information using both the populated LUSA ontology and the set of annotated documents. In this regard, the LUSA OBIE system was effective in producing a final suitability map.

* 17 pages, 18 figures 
  
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A Unified Framework of Medical Information Annotation and Extraction for Chinese Clinical Text

Mar 08, 2022
Enwei Zhu, Qilin Sheng, Huanwan Yang, Jinpeng Li

Medical information extraction consists of a group of natural language processing (NLP) tasks, which collaboratively convert clinical text to pre-defined structured formats. Current state-of-the-art (SOTA) NLP models are highly integrated with deep learning techniques and thus require massive annotated linguistic data. This study presents an engineering framework of medical entity recognition, relation extraction and attribute extraction, which are unified in annotation, modeling and evaluation. Specifically, the annotation scheme is comprehensive, and compatible between tasks, especially for the medical relations. The resulted annotated corpus includes 1,200 full medical records (or 18,039 broken-down documents), and achieves inter-annotator agreements (IAAs) of 94.53%, 73.73% and 91.98% F 1 scores for the three tasks. Three task-specific neural network models are developed within a shared structure, and enhanced by SOTA NLP techniques, i.e., pre-trained language models. Experimental results show that the system can retrieve medical entities, relations and attributes with F 1 scores of 93.47%, 67.14% and 90.89%, respectively. This study, in addition to our publicly released annotation scheme and code, provides solid and practical engineering experience of developing an integrated medical information extraction system.

* 31 pages, 5 figures 
  
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Kleister: Key Information Extraction Datasets Involving Long Documents with Complex Layouts

May 12, 2021
Tomasz Stanisławek, Filip Graliński, Anna Wróblewska, Dawid Lipiński, Agnieszka Kaliska, Paulina Rosalska, Bartosz Topolski, Przemysław Biecek

The relevance of the Key Information Extraction (KIE) task is increasingly important in natural language processing problems. But there are still only a few well-defined problems that serve as benchmarks for solutions in this area. To bridge this gap, we introduce two new datasets (Kleister NDA and Kleister Charity). They involve a mix of scanned and born-digital long formal English-language documents. In these datasets, an NLP system is expected to find or infer various types of entities by employing both textual and structural layout features. The Kleister Charity dataset consists of 2,788 annual financial reports of charity organizations, with 61,643 unique pages and 21,612 entities to extract. The Kleister NDA dataset has 540 Non-disclosure Agreements, with 3,229 unique pages and 2,160 entities to extract. We provide several state-of-the-art baseline systems from the KIE domain (Flair, BERT, RoBERTa, LayoutLM, LAMBERT), which show that our datasets pose a strong challenge to existing models. The best model achieved an 81.77% and an 83.57% F1-score on respectively the Kleister NDA and the Kleister Charity datasets. We share the datasets to encourage progress on more in-depth and complex information extraction tasks.

* accepted to ICDAR 2021 
  
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Ontology-driven Information Extraction

Dec 18, 2015
Weronika T. Adrian, Nicola Leone, Marco Manna

Homogeneous unstructured data (HUD) are collections of unstructured documents that share common properties, such as similar layout, common file format, or common domain of values. Building on such properties, it would be desirable to automatically process HUD to access the main information through a semantic layer -- typically an ontology -- called semantic view. Hence, we propose an ontology-based approach for extracting semantically rich information from HUD, by integrating and extending recent technologies and results from the fields of classical information extraction, table recognition, ontologies, text annotation, and logic programming. Moreover, we design and implement a system, named KnowRex, that has been successfully applied to curriculum vitae in the Europass style to offer a semantic view of them, and be able, for example, to select those which exhibit required skills.

  
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BERT-Based Multi-Head Selection for Joint Entity-Relation Extraction

Aug 16, 2019
Weipeng Huang, Xingyi Cheng, Taifeng Wang, Wei Chu

In this paper, we report our method for the Information Extraction task in 2019 Language and Intelligence Challenge. We incorporate BERT into the multi-head selection framework for joint entity-relation extraction. This model extends existing approaches from three perspectives. First, BERT is adopted as a feature extraction layer at the bottom of the multi-head selection framework. We further optimize BERT by introducing a semantic-enhanced task during BERT pre-training. Second, we introduce a large-scale Baidu Baike corpus for entity recognition pre-training, which is of weekly supervised learning since there is no actual named entity label. Third, soft label embedding is proposed to effectively transmit information between entity recognition and relation extraction. Combining these three contributions, we enhance the information extracting ability of the multi-head selection model and achieve F1-score 0.876 on testset-1 with a single model. By ensembling four variants of our model, we finally achieve F1 score 0.892 (1st place) on testset-1 and F1 score 0.8924 (2nd place) on testset-2.

* To appear at NLPCC 2019 
  
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TableNet: Deep Learning model for end-to-end Table detection and Tabular data extraction from Scanned Document Images

Jan 06, 2020
Shubham Paliwal, Vishwanath D, Rohit Rahul, Monika Sharma, Lovekesh Vig

With the widespread use of mobile phones and scanners to photograph and upload documents, the need for extracting the information trapped in unstructured document images such as retail receipts, insurance claim forms and financial invoices is becoming more acute. A major hurdle to this objective is that these images often contain information in the form of tables and extracting data from tabular sub-images presents a unique set of challenges. This includes accurate detection of the tabular region within an image, and subsequently detecting and extracting information from the rows and columns of the detected table. While some progress has been made in table detection, extracting the table contents is still a challenge since this involves more fine grained table structure(rows & columns) recognition. Prior approaches have attempted to solve the table detection and structure recognition problems independently using two separate models. In this paper, we propose TableNet: a novel end-to-end deep learning model for both table detection and structure recognition. The model exploits the interdependence between the twin tasks of table detection and table structure recognition to segment out the table and column regions. This is followed by semantic rule-based row extraction from the identified tabular sub-regions. The proposed model and extraction approach was evaluated on the publicly available ICDAR 2013 and Marmot Table datasets obtaining state of the art results. Additionally, we demonstrate that feeding additional semantic features further improves model performance and that the model exhibits transfer learning across datasets. Another contribution of this paper is to provide additional table structure annotations for the Marmot data, which currently only has annotations for table detection.

  
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