This paper introduces "Shai" a 10B level large language model specifically designed for the asset management industry, built upon an open-source foundational model. With continuous pre-training and fine-tuning using a targeted corpus, Shai demonstrates enhanced performance in tasks relevant to its domain, outperforming baseline models. Our research includes the development of an innovative evaluation framework, which integrates professional qualification exams, tailored tasks, open-ended question answering, and safety assessments, to comprehensively assess Shai's capabilities. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges and implications of utilizing large language models like GPT-4 for performance assessment in asset management, suggesting a combination of automated evaluation and human judgment. Shai's development, showcasing the potential and versatility of 10B-level large language models in the financial sector with significant performance and modest computational requirements, hopes to provide practical insights and methodologies to assist industry peers in their similar endeavors.
Sharing knowledge between information extraction tasks has always been a challenge due to the diverse data formats and task variations. Meanwhile, this divergence leads to information waste and increases difficulties in building complex applications in real scenarios. Recent studies often formulate IE tasks as a triplet extraction problem. However, such a paradigm does not support multi-span and n-ary extraction, leading to weak versatility. To this end, we reorganize IE problems into unified multi-slot tuples and propose a universal framework for various IE tasks, namely Mirror. Specifically, we recast existing IE tasks as a multi-span cyclic graph extraction problem and devise a non-autoregressive graph decoding algorithm to extract all spans in a single step. It is worth noting that this graph structure is incredibly versatile, and it supports not only complex IE tasks, but also machine reading comprehension and classification tasks. We manually construct a corpus containing 57 datasets for model pretraining, and conduct experiments on 30 datasets across 8 downstream tasks. The experimental results demonstrate that our model has decent compatibility and outperforms or reaches competitive performance with SOTA systems under few-shot and zero-shot settings. The code, model weights, and pretraining corpus are available at https://github.com/Spico197/Mirror .
While recent advancements in large language models (LLMs) bring us closer to achieving artificial general intelligence, the question persists: Do LLMs truly understand language, or do they merely mimic comprehension through pattern recognition? This study seeks to explore this question through the lens of syntax, a crucial component of sentence comprehension. Adopting a natural language question-answering (Q&A) scheme, we craft questions targeting nine syntactic knowledge points that are most closely related to sentence comprehension. Experiments conducted on 24 LLMs suggest that most have a limited grasp of syntactic knowledge, exhibiting notable discrepancies across different syntactic knowledge points. In particular, questions involving prepositional phrase attachment pose the greatest challenge, whereas those concerning adjectival modifier and indirect object are relatively easier for LLMs to handle. Furthermore, a case study on the training dynamics of the LLMs reveals that the majority of syntactic knowledge is learned during the initial stages of training, hinting that simply increasing the number of training tokens may not be the `silver bullet' for improving the comprehension ability of LLMs.
This work visits the topic of jointly parsing constituency and dependency trees, i.e., to produce compatible constituency and dependency trees simultaneously for input sentences, which is attractive considering that the two types of trees are complementary in representing syntax. Compared with previous works, we make progress in four aspects: (1) adopting a much more efficient decoding algorithm, (2) exploring joint modeling at the training phase, instead of only at the inference phase, (3) proposing high-order scoring components for constituent-dependency interaction, (4) gaining more insights via in-depth experiments and analysis.
Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL), which aims at automatically recognizing unseen objects, is a promising learning paradigm to understand new real-world knowledge for machines continuously. Recently, the Knowledge Graph (KG) has been proven as an effective scheme for handling the zero-shot task with large-scale and non-attribute data. Prior studies always embed relationships of seen and unseen objects into visual information from existing knowledge graphs to promote the cognitive ability of the unseen data. Actually, real-world knowledge is naturally formed by multimodal facts. Compared with ordinary structural knowledge from a graph perspective, multimodal KG can provide cognitive systems with fine-grained knowledge. For example, the text description and visual content can depict more critical details of a fact than only depending on knowledge triplets. Unfortunately, this multimodal fine-grained knowledge is largely unexploited due to the bottleneck of feature alignment between different modalities. To that end, we propose a multimodal intensive ZSL framework that matches regions of images with corresponding semantic embeddings via a designed dense attention module and self-calibration loss. It makes the semantic transfer process of our ZSL framework learns more differentiated knowledge between entities. Our model also gets rid of the performance limitation of only using rough global features. We conduct extensive experiments and evaluate our model on large-scale real-world data. The experimental results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in standard zero-shot classification tasks.
* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1805.11724 by other authors
Developing monolingual large Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) is shown to be very successful in handling different tasks in Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this work, we present AraMUS, the largest Arabic PLM with 11B parameters trained on 529GB of high-quality Arabic textual data. AraMUS achieves state-of-the-art performances on a diverse set of Arabic classification and generative tasks. Moreover, AraMUS shows impressive few-shot learning abilities compared with the best existing Arabic PLMs.
Factuality is important to dialogue summarization. Factual error correction (FEC) of model-generated summaries is one way to improve factuality. Current FEC evaluation that relies on factuality metrics is not reliable and detailed enough. To address this problem, we are the first to manually annotate a FEC dataset for dialogue summarization containing 4000 items and propose FERRANTI, a fine-grained evaluation framework based on reference correction that automatically evaluates the performance of FEC models on different error categories. Using this evaluation framework, we conduct sufficient experiments with FEC approaches under a variety of settings and find the best training modes and significant differences in the performance of the existing approaches on different factual error categories.
Recent years have seen remarkable progress in automatic speech recognition (ASR). However, traditional token-level ASR models have struggled with accurately transcribing entities due to the problem of homophonic and near-homophonic tokens. This paper introduces a novel approach called CopyNE, which uses a span-level copying mechanism to improve ASR in transcribing entities. CopyNE can copy all tokens of an entity at once, effectively avoiding errors caused by homophonic or near-homophonic tokens that occur when predicting multiple tokens separately. Experiments on Aishell and ST-cmds datasets demonstrate that CopyNE achieves significant reductions in character error rate (CER) and named entity CER (NE-CER), especially in entity-rich scenarios. Furthermore, even when compared to the strong Whisper baseline, CopyNE still achieves notable reductions in CER and NE-CER. Qualitative comparisons with previous approaches demonstrate that CopyNE can better handle entities, effectively improving the accuracy of ASR.