We introduce GAIA, a benchmark for General AI Assistants that, if solved, would represent a milestone in AI research. GAIA proposes real-world questions that require a set of fundamental abilities such as reasoning, multi-modality handling, web browsing, and generally tool-use proficiency. GAIA questions are conceptually simple for humans yet challenging for most advanced AIs: we show that human respondents obtain 92\% vs. 15\% for GPT-4 equipped with plugins. This notable performance disparity contrasts with the recent trend of LLMs outperforming humans on tasks requiring professional skills in e.g. law or chemistry. GAIA's philosophy departs from the current trend in AI benchmarks suggesting to target tasks that are ever more difficult for humans. We posit that the advent of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) hinges on a system's capability to exhibit similar robustness as the average human does on such questions. Using GAIA's methodology, we devise 466 questions and their answer. We release our questions while retaining answers to 300 of them to power a leader-board available at https://huggingface.co/gaia-benchmark.
Unsupervised representation learning has seen tremendous progress but is constrained by its reliance on data modality-specific stationarity and topology, a limitation not found in biological intelligence systems. For instance, human vision processes visual signals derived from irregular and non-stationary sampling lattices yet accurately perceives the geometry of the world. We introduce a novel framework that learns from high-dimensional data lacking stationarity and topology. Our model combines a learnable self-organizing layer, density adjusted spectral clustering, and masked autoencoders. We evaluate its effectiveness on simulated biological vision data, neural recordings from the primary visual cortex, and gene expression datasets. Compared to state-of-the-art unsupervised learning methods like SimCLR and MAE, our model excels at learning meaningful representations across diverse modalities without depending on stationarity or topology. It also outperforms other methods not dependent on these factors, setting a new benchmark in the field. This work represents a step toward unsupervised learning methods that can generalize across diverse high-dimensional data modalities.
Self-supervised learning is a promising paradigm in deep learning that enables learning from unlabeled data by constructing pretext tasks that require learning useful representations. In natural language processing, the dominant pretext task has been masked language modeling (MLM), while in computer vision there exists an equivalent called Masked Image Modeling (MIM). However, MIM is challenging because it requires predicting semantic content in accurate locations. E.g, given an incomplete picture of a dog, we can guess that there is a tail, but we cannot determine its exact location. In this work, we propose FlexPredict, a stochastic model that addresses this challenge by incorporating location uncertainty into the model. Specifically, we condition the model on stochastic masked token positions to guide the model toward learning features that are more robust to location uncertainties. Our approach improves downstream performance on a range of tasks, e.g, compared to MIM baselines, FlexPredict boosts ImageNet linear probing by 1.6% with ViT-B and by 2.5% for semi-supervised video segmentation using ViT-L.
Self-supervised learning of visual representations has been focusing on learning content features, which do not capture object motion or location, and focus on identifying and differentiating objects in images and videos. On the other hand, optical flow estimation is a task that does not involve understanding the content of the images on which it is estimated. We unify the two approaches and introduce MC-JEPA, a joint-embedding predictive architecture and self-supervised learning approach to jointly learn optical flow and content features within a shared encoder, demonstrating that the two associated objectives; the optical flow estimation objective and the self-supervised learning objective; benefit from each other and thus learn content features that incorporate motion information. The proposed approach achieves performance on-par with existing unsupervised optical flow benchmarks, as well as with common self-supervised learning approaches on downstream tasks such as semantic segmentation of images and videos.
Machine learning for differential equations paves the way for computationally efficient alternatives to numerical solvers, with potentially broad impacts in science and engineering. Though current algorithms typically require simulated training data tailored to a given setting, one may instead wish to learn useful information from heterogeneous sources, or from real dynamical systems observations that are messy or incomplete. In this work, we learn general-purpose representations of PDEs from heterogeneous data by implementing joint embedding methods for self-supervised learning (SSL), a framework for unsupervised representation learning that has had notable success in computer vision. Our representation outperforms baseline approaches to invariant tasks, such as regressing the coefficients of a PDE, while also improving the time-stepping performance of neural solvers. We hope that our proposed methodology will prove useful in the eventual development of general-purpose foundation models for PDEs.
Transfer learning has emerged as a key approach in the machine learning domain, enabling the application of knowledge derived from one domain to improve performance on subsequent tasks. Given the often limited information about these subsequent tasks, a strong transfer learning approach calls for the model to capture a diverse range of features during the initial pretraining stage. However, recent research suggests that, without sufficient regularization, the network tends to concentrate on features that primarily reduce the pretraining loss function. This tendency can result in inadequate feature learning and impaired generalization capability for target tasks. To address this issue, we propose Variance-Covariance Regularization (VCR), a regularization technique aimed at fostering diversity in the learned network features. Drawing inspiration from recent advancements in the self-supervised learning approach, our approach promotes learned representations that exhibit high variance and minimal covariance, thus preventing the network from focusing solely on loss-reducing features. We empirically validate the efficacy of our method through comprehensive experiments coupled with in-depth analytical studies on the learned representations. In addition, we develop an efficient implementation strategy that assures minimal computational overhead associated with our method. Our results indicate that VCR is a powerful and efficient method for enhancing transfer learning performance for both supervised learning and self-supervised learning, opening new possibilities for future research in this domain.
Current automated systems have crucial limitations that need to be addressed before artificial intelligence can reach human-like levels and bring new technological revolutions. Among others, our societies still lack Level 5 self-driving cars, domestic robots, and virtual assistants that learn reliable world models, reason, and plan complex action sequences. In these notes, we summarize the main ideas behind the architecture of autonomous intelligence of the future proposed by Yann LeCun. In particular, we introduce energy-based and latent variable models and combine their advantages in the building block of LeCun's proposal, that is, in the hierarchical joint embedding predictive architecture (H-JEPA).
Self-supervised learning (SSL) is a powerful tool in machine learning, but understanding the learned representations and their underlying mechanisms remains a challenge. This paper presents an in-depth empirical analysis of SSL-trained representations, encompassing diverse models, architectures, and hyperparameters. Our study reveals an intriguing aspect of the SSL training process: it inherently facilitates the clustering of samples with respect to semantic labels, which is surprisingly driven by the SSL objective's regularization term. This clustering process not only enhances downstream classification but also compresses the data information. Furthermore, we establish that SSL-trained representations align more closely with semantic classes rather than random classes. Remarkably, we show that learned representations align with semantic classes across various hierarchical levels, and this alignment increases during training and when moving deeper into the network. Our findings provide valuable insights into SSL's representation learning mechanisms and their impact on performance across different sets of classes.
Deep neural networks have demonstrated remarkable performance in supervised learning tasks but require large amounts of labeled data. Self-supervised learning offers an alternative paradigm, enabling the model to learn from data without explicit labels. Information theory has been instrumental in understanding and optimizing deep neural networks. Specifically, the information bottleneck principle has been applied to optimize the trade-off between compression and relevant information preservation in supervised settings. However, the optimal information objective in self-supervised learning remains unclear. In this paper, we review various approaches to self-supervised learning from an information-theoretic standpoint and present a unified framework that formalizes the self-supervised information-theoretic learning problem. We integrate existing research into a coherent framework, examine recent self-supervised methods, and identify research opportunities and challenges. Moreover, we discuss empirical measurement of information-theoretic quantities and their estimators. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the intersection between information theory, self-supervised learning, and deep neural networks.
Self-supervised learning, dubbed the dark matter of intelligence, is a promising path to advance machine learning. Yet, much like cooking, training SSL methods is a delicate art with a high barrier to entry. While many components are familiar, successfully training a SSL method involves a dizzying set of choices from the pretext tasks to training hyper-parameters. Our goal is to lower the barrier to entry into SSL research by laying the foundations and latest SSL recipes in the style of a cookbook. We hope to empower the curious researcher to navigate the terrain of methods, understand the role of the various knobs, and gain the know-how required to explore how delicious SSL can be.