Millimeter-wave (mmWave,>30 GHz) radars are the key enabler in the coming 6G era for high-resolution sensing and detection of targets. Photonic radar provides an effective approach to overcome the limitations of electronic radars thanks to the high frequency, broad bandwidth, and excellent reconfigurability of photonic systems. However, conventional photonic radars are mostly realized in tabletop systems composed of bulky discrete components, whereas the more compact integrated photonic radars are difficult to reach the mmWave bands due to the unsatisfactory bandwidths and signal integrity of the underlining electro-optic modulators. Here, we overcome these challenges and demonstrate a centimeter-resolution integrated photonic radar operating in the mmWave V band (40-50 GHz) based on a 4-inch wafer-scale thin-film lithium niobate (TFLN) technology. The fabricated TFLN mmWave photonic integrated circuit consists of a first electro-optic modulator capable of generating a broadband linear frequency modulated mmWave radar waveform through optical frequency multiplication of a low-frequency input signal, and a second electro-optic modulator responsible for frequency de-chirp of the received reflected echo wave, therefore greatly relieving the bandwidth requirements for the analog-to-digital converter in the receiver. Thanks to the absence of optical and electrical filters in the system, our integrated photonic mmWave radar features continuous on-demand tunability of the center frequency and bandwidth, currently only limited by the bandwidths of electrical amplifiers. We achieve multi-target ranging with a resolution of 1.50 cm and velocity measurement with a resolution of 0.067 m/s. Furthermore, we construct an inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) and successfully demonstrate the imaging of targets with various shapes and postures with a two-dimensional resolution of 1.50 cm * 1.06 cm.
Treatment planning is a critical component of the radiotherapy workflow, typically carried out by a medical physicist using a time-consuming trial-and-error manner. Previous studies have proposed knowledge-based or deep learning-based methods for predicting dose distribution maps to assist medical physicists in improving the efficiency of treatment planning. However, these dose prediction methods usuallylack the effective utilization of distance information between surrounding tissues andtargets or organs-at-risk (OARs). Moreover, they are poor in maintaining the distribution characteristics of ray paths in the predicted dose distribution maps, resulting in a loss of valuable information obtained by medical physicists. In this paper, we propose a distance-aware diffusion model (DoseDiff) for precise prediction of dose distribution. We define dose prediction as a sequence of denoising steps, wherein the predicted dose distribution map is generated with the conditions of the CT image and signed distance maps (SDMs). The SDMs are obtained by a distance transformation from the masks of targets or OARs, which provide the distance information from each pixel in the image to the outline of the targets or OARs. Besides, we propose a multiencoder and multi-scale fusion network (MMFNet) that incorporates a multi-scale fusion and a transformer-based fusion module to enhance information fusion between the CT image and SDMs at the feature level. Our model was evaluated on two datasets collected from patients with breast cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer, respectively. The results demonstrate that our DoseDiff outperforms the state-of-the-art dose prediction methods in terms of both quantitative and visual quality.
Causal feature selection has recently received increasing attention in machine learning. Existing causal feature selection algorithms select unique causal features of a class variable as the optimal feature subset. However, a class variable usually has multiple states, and it is unfair to select the same causal features for different states of a class variable. To address this problem, we employ the class-specific mutual information to evaluate the causal information carried by each state of the class attribute, and theoretically analyze the unique relationship between each state and the causal features. Based on this, a Fair Causal Feature Selection algorithm (FairCFS) is proposed to fairly identifies the causal features for each state of the class variable. Specifically, FairCFS uses the pairwise comparisons of class-specific mutual information and the size of class-specific mutual information values from the perspective of each state, and follows a divide-and-conquer framework to find causal features. The correctness and application condition of FairCFS are theoretically proved, and extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of FairCFS compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Hyper-parameters optimization (HPO) is vital for machine learning models. Besides model accuracy, other tuning intentions such as model training time and energy consumption are also worthy of attention from data analytic service providers. Hence, it is essential to take both model hyperparameters and system parameters into consideration to execute cross-layer multi-objective hyperparameter auto-tuning. Towards this challenging target, we propose HyperTuner in this paper. To address the formulated high-dimensional black-box multi-objective optimization problem, HyperTuner first conducts multi-objective parameter importance ranking with its MOPIR algorithm and then leverages the proposed ADUMBO algorithm to find the Pareto-optimal configuration set. During each iteration, ADUMBO selects the most promising configuration from the generated Pareto candidate set via maximizing a new well-designed metric, which can adaptively leverage the uncertainty as well as the predicted mean across all the surrogate models along with the iteration times. We evaluate HyperTuner on our local distributed TensorFlow cluster and experimental results show that it is always able to find a better Pareto configuration front superior in both convergence and diversity compared with the other four baseline algorithms. Besides, experiments with different training datasets, different optimization objectives and different machine learning platforms verify that HyperTuner can well adapt to various data analytic service scenarios.
AI generated content (AIGC) presents considerable challenge to educators around the world. Instructors need to be able to detect such text generated by large language models, either with the naked eye or with the help of some tools. There is also growing need to understand the lexical, syntactic and stylistic features of AIGC. To address these challenges in English language teaching, we first present ArguGPT, a balanced corpus of 4,038 argumentative essays generated by 7 GPT models in response to essay prompts from three sources: (1) in-class or homework exercises, (2) TOEFL and (3) GRE writing tasks. Machine-generated texts are paired with roughly equal number of human-written essays with three score levels matched in essay prompts. We then hire English instructors to distinguish machine essays from human ones. Results show that when first exposed to machine-generated essays, the instructors only have an accuracy of 61% in detecting them. But the number rises to 67% after one round of minimal self-training. Next, we perform linguistic analyses of these essays, which show that machines produce sentences with more complex syntactic structures while human essays tend to be lexically more complex. Finally, we test existing AIGC detectors and build our own detectors using SVMs and RoBERTa. Results suggest that a RoBERTa fine-tuned with the training set of ArguGPT achieves above 90% accuracy in both essay- and sentence-level classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of argumentative essays produced by generative large language models. Machine-authored essays in ArguGPT and our models will be made publicly available at https://github.com/huhailinguist/ArguGPT
Multilingual transformers (XLM, mT5) have been shown to have remarkable transfer skills in zero-shot settings. Most transfer studies, however, rely on automatically translated resources (XNLI, XQuAD), making it hard to discern the particular linguistic knowledge that is being transferred, and the role of expert annotated monolingual datasets when developing task-specific models. We investigate the cross-lingual transfer abilities of XLM-R for Chinese and English natural language inference (NLI), with a focus on the recent large-scale Chinese dataset OCNLI. To better understand linguistic transfer, we created 4 categories of challenge and adversarial tasks (totaling 17 new datasets) for Chinese that build on several well-known resources for English (e.g., HANS, NLI stress-tests). We find that cross-lingual models trained on English NLI do transfer well across our Chinese tasks (e.g., in 3/4 of our challenge categories, they perform as well/better than the best monolingual models, even on 3/5 uniquely Chinese linguistic phenomena such as idioms, pro drop). These results, however, come with important caveats: cross-lingual models often perform best when trained on a mixture of English and high-quality monolingual NLI data (OCNLI), and are often hindered by automatically translated resources (XNLI-zh). For many phenomena, all models continue to struggle, highlighting the need for our new diagnostics to help benchmark Chinese and cross-lingual models. All new datasets/code are released at https://github.com/huhailinguist/ChineseNLIProbing.
Signed network embedding is an approach to learn low-dimensional representations of nodes in signed networks with both positive and negative links, which facilitates downstream tasks such as link prediction with general data mining frameworks. Due to the distinct properties and significant added value of negative links, existing signed network embedding methods usually design dedicated methods based on social theories such as balance theory and status theory. However, existing signed network embedding methods ignore the characteristics of multiple facets of each node and mix them up in one single representation, which limits the ability to capture the fine-grained attentions between node pairs. In this paper, we propose MUSE, a MUlti-faceted attention-based Signed network Embedding framework to tackle this problem. Specifically, a joint intra- and inter-facet attention mechanism is introduced to aggregate fine-grained information from neighbor nodes. Moreover, balance theory is also utilized to guide information aggregation from multi-order balanced and unbalanced neighbors. Experimental results on four real-world signed network datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.
Network dismantling aims to degrade the connectivity of a network by removing an optimal set of nodes and has been widely adopted in many real-world applications such as epidemic control and rumor containment. However, conventional methods usually focus on simple network modeling with only pairwise interactions, while group-wise interactions modeled by hypernetwork are ubiquitous and critical. In this work, we formulate the hypernetwork dismantling problem as a node sequence decision problem and propose a deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based hypernetwork dismantling framework. Besides, we design a novel inductive hypernetwork embedding method to ensure the transferability to various real-world hypernetworks. Generally, our framework builds an agent. It first generates small-scale synthetic hypernetworks and embeds the nodes and hypernetworks into a low dimensional vector space to represent the action and state space in DRL, respectively. Then trial-and-error dismantling tasks are conducted by the agent on these synthetic hypernetworks, and the dismantling strategy is continuously optimized. Finally, the well-optimized strategy is applied to real-world hypernetwork dismantling tasks. Experimental results on five real-world hypernetworks demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework.
Recommendation systems (RSs) are skilled at capturing users' preferences according to their history interactions with items, while the RSs usually suffer from the sparsity of user-item interactions. Thus, various auxiliary information is introduced to alleviate this problem. Due to powerful ability in modeling auxiliary information, the heterogeneous information network (HIN) is widely applied to the RSs. However, in existing methods, the process of information extraction from various meta-paths takes no consideration of graph structure and user/item features simultaneously. Moreover, existing models usually fuse the information from various meta-paths through simply weighted summation, while ingore the interest compositions intra- and inter-meta-paths which is capable of applying abundant high-order composition interests to RSs. Therefore, we propose a HIN-based Interest Compositions model with graph neural network for Recommendation (short for HicRec). Above all, our model learns users and items representations from various graphs corresponding to the meta-paths with the help of the graph convolution network (GCN). Then, the representations of users and items are transformed into users' interests on items. Lastly, the interests intra- and inter-meta-paths are composed and applied to recommendation. Extensive experiments are conducted on three real-world datasets and the results show that the HicRec outperforms various baselines.
Causal Learner is a toolbox for learning causal structure and Markov blanket (MB) from data. It integrates functions for generating simulated Bayesian network data, a set of state-of-the-art global causal structure learning algorithms, a set of state-of-the-art local causal structure learning algorithms, a set of state-of-the-art MB learning algorithms, and functions for evaluating algorithms. The data generation part of Causal Learner is written in R, and the rest of Causal Learner is written in MATLAB. Causal Learner aims to provide researchers and practitioners with an open-source platform for causal learning from data and for the development and evaluation of new causal learning algorithms. The Causal Learner project is available at http://bigdata.ahu.edu.cn/causal-learner.