Accurate node localization is vital for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Current methods like Time of Arrival (TOA) can estimate node positions using imprecise baseplates and achieve the Cram\'er-Rao lower bound (CRLB) accuracy. In multi-hop MANETs, some nodes lack direct links to base anchors, depending on neighbor nodes as dynamic anchors for chain localization. However, the dynamic nature of MANETs challenges TOA's robustness due to the availability and accuracy of base anchors, coupled with ranging errors. To address the issue of cascading positioning error divergence, we first derive the CRLB for any primary node in MANETs as a metric to tackle localization error in cascading scenarios. Second, we propose an advanced two-step TOA method based on CRLB which is able to approximate target node's CRLB with only local neighbor information. Finally, simulation results confirm the robustness of our algorithm, achieving CRLB-level accuracy for small ranging errors and maintaining precision for larger errors compared to existing TOA methods.
We study recovering fluid density and velocity from sparse multiview videos. Existing neural dynamic reconstruction methods predominantly rely on optical flows; therefore, they cannot accurately estimate the density and uncover the underlying velocity due to the inherent visual ambiguities of fluid velocity, as fluids are often shapeless and lack stable visual features. The challenge is further pronounced by the turbulent nature of fluid flows, which calls for properly designed fluid velocity representations. To address these challenges, we propose hybrid neural fluid fields (HyFluid), a neural approach to jointly infer fluid density and velocity fields. Specifically, to deal with visual ambiguities of fluid velocity, we introduce a set of physics-based losses that enforce inferring a physically plausible velocity field, which is divergence-free and drives the transport of density. To deal with the turbulent nature of fluid velocity, we design a hybrid neural velocity representation that includes a base neural velocity field that captures most irrotational energy and a vortex particle-based velocity that models residual turbulent velocity. We show that our method enables recovering vortical flow details. Our approach opens up possibilities for various learning and reconstruction applications centered around 3D incompressible flow, including fluid re-simulation and editing, future prediction, and neural dynamic scene composition. Project website: https://kovenyu.com/HyFluid/
RGB-D object recognition systems improve their predictive performances by fusing color and depth information, outperforming neural network architectures that rely solely on colors. While RGB-D systems are expected to be more robust to adversarial examples than RGB-only systems, they have also been proven to be highly vulnerable. Their robustness is similar even when the adversarial examples are generated by altering only the original images' colors. Different works highlighted the vulnerability of RGB-D systems; however, there is a lacking of technical explanations for this weakness. Hence, in our work, we bridge this gap by investigating the learned deep representation of RGB-D systems, discovering that color features make the function learned by the network more complex and, thus, more sensitive to small perturbations. To mitigate this problem, we propose a defense based on a detection mechanism that makes RGB-D systems more robust against adversarial examples. We empirically show that this defense improves the performances of RGB-D systems against adversarial examples even when they are computed ad-hoc to circumvent this detection mechanism, and that is also more effective than adversarial training.
* Accepted for publication in the Information Sciences journal
This study presents a novel multimodal fusion model for three-dimensional mineral prospectivity mapping (3D MPM), effectively integrating structural and fluid information through a deep network architecture. Leveraging Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) and Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), the model employs canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to align and fuse multimodal features. Rigorous evaluation on the Jiaojia gold deposit dataset demonstrates the model's superior performance in distinguishing ore-bearing instances and predicting mineral prospectivity, outperforming other models in result analyses. Ablation studies further reveal the benefits of joint feature utilization and CCA incorporation. This research not only advances mineral prospectivity modeling but also highlights the pivotal role of data integration and feature alignment for enhanced exploration decision-making.
We introduce PointOdyssey, a large-scale synthetic dataset, and data generation framework, for the training and evaluation of long-term fine-grained tracking algorithms. Our goal is to advance the state-of-the-art by placing emphasis on long videos with naturalistic motion. Toward the goal of naturalism, we animate deformable characters using real-world motion capture data, we build 3D scenes to match the motion capture environments, and we render camera viewpoints using trajectories mined via structure-from-motion on real videos. We create combinatorial diversity by randomizing character appearance, motion profiles, materials, lighting, 3D assets, and atmospheric effects. Our dataset currently includes 104 videos, averaging 2,000 frames long, with orders of magnitude more correspondence annotations than prior work. We show that existing methods can be trained from scratch in our dataset and outperform the published variants. Finally, we introduce modifications to the PIPs point tracking method, greatly widening its temporal receptive field, which improves its performance on PointOdyssey as well as on two real-world benchmarks. Our data and code are publicly available at: https://pointodyssey.com
Regular object detection methods output rectangle bounding boxes, which are unable to accurately describe the actual object shapes. Instance segmentation methods output pixel-level labels, which are computationally expensive for real-time applications. Therefore, a polygon representation is needed to achieve precise shape alignment, while retaining low computation cost. We develop a novel Deformable Polar Polygon Object Detection method (DPPD) to detect objects in polygon shapes. In particular, our network predicts, for each object, a sparse set of flexible vertices to construct the polygon, where each vertex is represented by a pair of angle and distance in the Polar coordinate system. To enable training, both ground truth and predicted polygons are densely resampled to have the same number of vertices with equal-spaced raypoints. The resampling operation is fully differentable, allowing gradient back-propagation. Sparse polygon predicton ensures high-speed runtime inference while dense resampling allows the network to learn object shapes with high precision. The polygon detection head is established on top of an anchor-free and NMS-free network architecture. DPPD has been demonstrated successfully in various object detection tasks for autonomous driving such as traffic-sign, crosswalk, vehicle and pedestrian objects.
Compressed videos often exhibit visually annoying artifacts, known as Perceivable Encoding Artifacts (PEAs), which dramatically degrade video visual quality. Subjective and objective measures capable of identifying and quantifying various types of PEAs are critical in improving visual quality. In this paper, we investigate the influence of four spatial PEAs (i.e. blurring, blocking, bleeding, and ringing) and two temporal PEAs (i.e. flickering and floating) on video quality. For spatial artifacts, we propose a visual saliency model with a low computational cost and higher consistency with human visual perception. In terms of temporal artifacts, self-attention based TimeSFormer is improved to detect temporal artifacts. Based on the six types of PEAs, a quality metric called Saliency-Aware Spatio-Temporal Artifacts Measurement (SSTAM) is proposed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art metrics. We believe that SSTAM will be beneficial for optimizing video coding techniques.
The convergence of policy gradient algorithms in reinforcement learning hinges on the optimization landscape of the underlying optimal control problem. Theoretical insights into these algorithms can often be acquired from analyzing those of linear quadratic control. However, most of the existing literature only considers the optimization landscape for static full-state or output feedback policies (controllers). We investigate the more challenging case of dynamic output-feedback policies for linear quadratic regulation (abbreviated as dLQR), which is prevalent in practice but has a rather complicated optimization landscape. We first show how the dLQR cost varies with the coordinate transformation of the dynamic controller and then derive the optimal transformation for a given observable stabilizing controller. At the core of our results is the uniqueness of the stationary point of dLQR when it is observable, which is in a concise form of an observer-based controller with the optimal similarity transformation. These results shed light on designing efficient algorithms for general decision-making problems with partially observed information.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2201.09598
We propose a novel method to reliably estimate the pose of a camera given a sequence of images acquired in extreme environments such as deep seas or extraterrestrial terrains. Data acquired under these challenging conditions are corrupted by textureless surfaces, image degradation, and presence of repetitive and highly ambiguous structures. When naively deployed, the state-of-the-art methods can fail in those scenarios as confirmed by our empirical analysis. In this paper, we attempt to make camera relocalization work in these extreme situations. To this end, we propose: (i) a hierarchical localization system, where we leverage temporal information and (ii) a novel environment-aware image enhancement method to boost the robustness and accuracy. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate superior performance in favor of our method under two extreme settings: localizing an autonomous underwater vehicle and localizing a planetary rover in a Mars-like desert. In addition, our method achieves comparable performance with state-of-the-art methods on the indoor benchmark (7-Scenes dataset) using only 20% training data.
Predicting human motion is critical for assistive robots and AR/VR applications, where the interaction with humans needs to be safe and comfortable. Meanwhile, an accurate prediction depends on understanding both the scene context and human intentions. Even though many works study scene-aware human motion prediction, the latter is largely underexplored due to the lack of ego-centric views that disclose human intent and the limited diversity in motion and scenes. To reduce the gap, we propose a large-scale human motion dataset that delivers high-quality body pose sequences, scene scans, as well as ego-centric views with eye gaze that serves as a surrogate for inferring human intent. By employing inertial sensors for motion capture, our data collection is not tied to specific scenes, which further boosts the motion dynamics observed from our subjects. We perform an extensive study of the benefits of leveraging eye gaze for ego-centric human motion prediction with various state-of-the-art architectures. Moreover, to realize the full potential of gaze, we propose a novel network architecture that enables bidirectional communication between the gaze and motion branches. Our network achieves the top performance in human motion prediction on the proposed dataset, thanks to the intent information from the gaze and the denoised gaze feature modulated by the motion. The proposed dataset and our network implementation will be publicly available.