Training-free Vision Transformer (ViT) architecture search is presented to search for a better ViT with zero-cost proxies. While ViTs achieve significant distillation gains from CNN teacher models on small datasets, the current zero-cost proxies in ViTs do not generalize well to the distillation training paradigm according to our experimental observations. In this paper, for the first time, we investigate how to search in a training-free manner with the help of teacher models and devise an effective Training-free ViT (TVT) search framework. Firstly, we observe that the similarity of attention maps between ViT and ConvNet teachers affects distill accuracy notably. Thus, we present a teacher-aware metric conditioned on the feature attention relations between teacher and student. Additionally, TVT employs the L2-Norm of the student's weights as the student-capability metric to improve ranking consistency. Finally, TVT searches for the best ViT for distilling with ConvNet teachers via our teacher-aware metric and student-capability metric, resulting in impressive gains in efficiency and effectiveness. Extensive experiments on various tiny datasets and search spaces show that our TVT outperforms state-of-the-art training-free search methods. The code will be released.
Mixed-Precision Quantization~(MQ) can achieve a competitive accuracy-complexity trade-off for models. Conventional training-based search methods require time-consuming candidate training to search optimized per-layer bit-width configurations in MQ. Recently, some training-free approaches have presented various MQ proxies and significantly improve search efficiency. However, the correlation between these proxies and quantization accuracy is poorly understood. To address the gap, we first build the MQ-Bench-101, which involves different bit configurations and quantization results. Then, we observe that the existing training-free proxies perform weak correlations on the MQ-Bench-101. To efficiently seek superior proxies, we develop an automatic search of proxies framework for MQ via evolving algorithms. In particular, we devise an elaborate search space involving the existing proxies and perform an evolution search to discover the best correlated MQ proxy. We proposed a diversity-prompting selection strategy and compatibility screening protocol to avoid premature convergence and improve search efficiency. In this way, our Evolving proxies for Mixed-precision Quantization~(EMQ) framework allows the auto-generation of proxies without heavy tuning and expert knowledge. Extensive experiments on ImageNet with various ResNet and MobileNet families demonstrate that our EMQ obtains superior performance than state-of-the-art mixed-precision methods at a significantly reduced cost. The code will be released.
Text classification tasks often encounter few shot scenarios with limited labeled data, and addressing data scarcity is crucial. Data augmentation with mixup has shown to be effective on various text classification tasks. However, most of the mixup methods do not consider the varying degree of learning difficulty in different stages of training and generate new samples with one hot labels, resulting in the model over confidence. In this paper, we propose a self evolution learning (SE) based mixup approach for data augmentation in text classification, which can generate more adaptive and model friendly pesudo samples for the model training. SE focuses on the variation of the model's learning ability. To alleviate the model confidence, we introduce a novel instance specific label smoothing approach, which linearly interpolates the model's output and one hot labels of the original samples to generate new soft for label mixing up. Through experimental analysis, in addition to improving classification accuracy, we demonstrate that SE also enhances the model's generalize ability.
Practical networks for edge devices adopt shallow depth and small convolutional kernels to save memory and computational cost, which leads to a restricted receptive field. Conventional efficient learning methods focus on lightweight convolution designs, ignoring the role of the receptive field in neural network design. In this paper, we propose the Meta-Pooling framework to make the receptive field learnable for a lightweight network, which consists of parameterized pooling-based operations. Specifically, we introduce a parameterized spatial enhancer, which is composed of pooling operations to provide versatile receptive fields for each layer of a lightweight model. Then, we present a Progressive Meta-Pooling Learning (PMPL) strategy for the parameterized spatial enhancer to acquire a suitable receptive field size. The results on the ImageNet dataset demonstrate that MobileNetV2 using Meta-Pooling achieves top1 accuracy of 74.6\%, which outperforms MobileNetV2 by 2.3\%.
Neural architecture search (NAS) has made tremendous progress in the automatic design of effective neural network structures but suffers from a heavy computational burden. One-shot NAS significantly alleviates the burden through weight sharing and improves computational efficiency. Zero-shot NAS further reduces the cost by predicting the performance of the network from its initial state, which conducts no training. Both methods aim to distinguish between "good" and "bad" architectures, i.e., ranking consistency of predicted and true performance. In this paper, we propose Ranking Distillation one-shot NAS (RD-NAS) to enhance ranking consistency, which utilizes zero-cost proxies as the cheap teacher and adopts the margin ranking loss to distill the ranking knowledge. Specifically, we propose a margin subnet sampler to distill the ranking knowledge from zero-shot NAS to one-shot NAS by introducing Group distance as margin. Our evaluation of the NAS-Bench-201 and ResNet-based search space demonstrates that RD-NAS achieve 10.7\% and 9.65\% improvements in ranking ability, respectively. Our codes are available at https://github.com/pprp/CVPR2022-NAS-competition-Track1-3th-solution
Pure transformers have shown great potential for vision tasks recently. However, their accuracy in small or medium datasets is not satisfactory. Although some existing methods introduce a CNN as a teacher to guide the training process by distillation, the gap between teacher and student networks would lead to sub-optimal performance. In this work, we propose a new One-shot Vision transformer search framework with Online distillation, namely OVO. OVO samples sub-nets for both teacher and student networks for better distillation results. Benefiting from the online distillation, thousands of subnets in the supernet are well-trained without extra finetuning or retraining. In experiments, OVO-Ti achieves 73.32% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet and 75.2% on CIFAR-100, respectively.
* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2107.00651 by
Vision transformers have shown excellent performance in computer vision tasks. However, the computation cost of their (local) self-attention mechanism is expensive. Comparatively, CNN is more efficient with built-in inductive bias. Recent works show that CNN is promising to compete with vision transformers by learning their architecture design and training protocols. Nevertheless, existing methods either ignore multi-level features or lack dynamic prosperity, leading to sub-optimal performance. In this paper, we propose a novel attention mechanism named MCA, which captures different patterns of input images by multiple kernel sizes and enables input-adaptive weights with a gating mechanism. Based on MCA, we present a neural network named ConvFormer. ConvFormer adopts the general architecture of vision transformers, while replacing the (local) self-attention mechanism with our proposed MCA. Extensive experimental results demonstrated that ConvFormer achieves state-of-the-art performance on ImageNet classification, which outperforms similar-sized vision transformers(ViTs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Moreover, for object detection on COCO and semantic segmentation tasks on ADE20K, ConvFormer also shows excellent performance compared with recently advanced methods. Code and models will be available.
This paper reviews the Challenge on Super-Resolution of Compressed Image and Video at AIM 2022. This challenge includes two tracks. Track 1 aims at the super-resolution of compressed image, and Track~2 targets the super-resolution of compressed video. In Track 1, we use the popular dataset DIV2K as the training, validation and test sets. In Track 2, we propose the LDV 3.0 dataset, which contains 365 videos, including the LDV 2.0 dataset (335 videos) and 30 additional videos. In this challenge, there are 12 teams and 2 teams that submitted the final results to Track 1 and Track 2, respectively. The proposed methods and solutions gauge the state-of-the-art of super-resolution on compressed image and video. The proposed LDV 3.0 dataset is available at https://github.com/RenYang-home/LDV_dataset. The homepage of this challenge is at https://github.com/RenYang-home/AIM22_CompressSR.
Neural architecture search methods seek optimal candidates with efficient weight-sharing supernet training. However, recent studies indicate poor ranking consistency about the performance between stand-alone architectures and shared-weight networks. In this paper, we present Prior-Guided One-shot NAS (PGONAS) to strengthen the ranking correlation of supernets. Specifically, we first explore the effect of activation functions and propose a balanced sampling strategy based on the Sandwich Rule to alleviate weight coupling in the supernet. Then, FLOPs and Zen-Score are adopted to guide the training of supernet with ranking correlation loss. Our PGONAS ranks 3rd place in the supernet Track Track of CVPR2022 Second lightweight NAS challenge. Code is available in https://github.com/pprp/CVPR2022-NAS?competition-Track1-3th-solution.
Convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved impressive success in computer vision during the past few decades. The image convolution operation helps CNNs to get good performance on image-related tasks. However, the image convolution has high computation complexity and hard to be implemented. This paper proposes the CEMNet, which can be trained in the frequency domain. The most important motivation of this research is that we can use the straightforward element-wise multiplication operation to replace the image convolution in the frequency domain based on the Cross-Correlation Theorem, which obviously reduces the computation complexity. We further introduce a Weight Fixation mechanism to alleviate the problem of over-fitting, and analyze the working behavior of Batch Normalization, Leaky ReLU, and Dropout in the frequency domain to design their counterparts for CEMNet. Also, to deal with complex inputs brought by Discrete Fourier Transform, we design a two-branches network structure for CEMNet. Experimental results imply that CEMNet achieves good performance on MNIST and CIFAR-10 databases.