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Yuxin Dong, Tieliang Gong, Hong Chen, Chen Li

Recently, information theoretic analysis has become a popular framework for understanding the generalization behavior of deep neural networks. It allows a direct analysis for stochastic gradient/Langevin descent (SGD/SGLD) learning algorithms without strong assumptions such as Lipschitz or convexity conditions. However, the current generalization error bounds within this framework are still far from optimal, while substantial improvements on these bounds are quite challenging due to the intractability of high-dimensional information quantities. To address this issue, we first propose a novel information theoretical measure: kernelized Renyi's entropy, by utilizing operator representation in Hilbert space. It inherits the properties of Shannon's entropy and can be effectively calculated via simple random sampling, while remaining independent of the input dimension. We then establish the generalization error bounds for SGD/SGLD under kernelized Renyi's entropy, where the mutual information quantities can be directly calculated, enabling evaluation of the tightness of each intermediate step. We show that our information-theoretical bounds depend on the statistics of the stochastic gradients evaluated along with the iterates, and are rigorously tighter than the current state-of-the-art (SOTA) results. The theoretical findings are also supported by large-scale empirical studies1.

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Jun Chen, Hong Chen, Xue Jiang, Bin Gu, Weifu Li, Tieliang Gong, Feng Zheng

Triplet learning, i.e. learning from triplet data, has attracted much attention in computer vision tasks with an extremely large number of categories, e.g., face recognition and person re-identification. Albeit with rapid progress in designing and applying triplet learning algorithms, there is a lacking study on the theoretical understanding of their generalization performance. To fill this gap, this paper investigates the generalization guarantees of triplet learning by leveraging the stability analysis. Specifically, we establish the first general high-probability generalization bound for the triplet learning algorithm satisfying the uniform stability, and then obtain the excess risk bounds of the order $O(n^{-\frac{1}{2}} \mathrm{log}n)$ for both stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and regularized risk minimization (RRM), where $2n$ is approximately equal to the number of training samples. Moreover, an optimistic generalization bound in expectation as fast as $O(n^{-1})$ is derived for RRM in a low noise case via the on-average stability analysis. Finally, our results are applied to triplet metric learning to characterize its theoretical underpinning.

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Yuxin Dong, Tieliang Gong, Shujian Yu, Hong Chen, Chen Li

The matrix-based R\'enyi's entropy allows us to directly quantify information measures from given data, without explicit estimation of the underlying probability distribution. This intriguing property makes it widely applied in statistical inference and machine learning tasks. However, this information theoretical quantity is not robust against noise in the data, and is computationally prohibitive in large-scale applications. To address these issues, we propose a novel measure of information, termed low-rank matrix-based R\'enyi's entropy, based on low-rank representations of infinitely divisible kernel matrices. The proposed entropy functional inherits the specialty of of the original definition to directly quantify information from data, but enjoys additional advantages including robustness and effective calculation. Specifically, our low-rank variant is more sensitive to informative perturbations induced by changes in underlying distributions, while being insensitive to uninformative ones caused by noises. Moreover, low-rank R\'enyi's entropy can be efficiently approximated by random projection and Lanczos iteration techniques, reducing the overall complexity from $\mathcal{O}(n^3)$ to $\mathcal{O}(n^2 s)$ or even $\mathcal{O}(ns^2)$, where $n$ is the number of data samples and $s \ll n$. We conduct large-scale experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of this new information measure, demonstrating superior results compared to matrix-based R\'enyi's entropy in terms of both performance and computational efficiency.

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Yuxin Dong, Tieliang Gong, Shujian Yu, Chen Li

The Matrix-based Renyi's entropy enables us to directly measure information quantities from given data without the costly probability density estimation of underlying distributions, thus has been widely adopted in numerous statistical learning and inference tasks. However, exactly calculating this new information quantity requires access to the eigenspectrum of a semi-positive definite (SPD) matrix $A$ which grows linearly with the number of samples $n$, resulting in a $O(n^3)$ time complexity that is prohibitive for large-scale applications. To address this issue, this paper takes advantage of stochastic trace approximations for matrix-based Renyi's entropy with arbitrary $\alpha \in R^+$ orders, lowering the complexity by converting the entropy approximation to a matrix-vector multiplication problem. Specifically, we develop random approximations for integer order $\alpha$ cases and polynomial series approximations (Taylor and Chebyshev) for non-integer $\alpha$ cases, leading to a $O(n^2sm)$ overall time complexity, where $s,m \ll n$ denote the number of vector queries and the polynomial order respectively. We theoretically establish statistical guarantees for all approximation algorithms and give explicit order of s and m with respect to the approximation error $\varepsilon$, showing optimal convergence rate for both parameters up to a logarithmic factor. Large-scale simulations and real-world applications validate the effectiveness of the developed approximations, demonstrating remarkable speedup with negligible loss in accuracy.

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Xuebin Zhao, Hong Chen, Yingjie Wang, Weifu Li, Tieliang Gong, Yulong Wang, Feng Zheng

Recently, the scheme of model-X knockoffs was proposed as a promising solution to address controlled feature selection under high-dimensional finite-sample settings. However, the procedure of model-X knockoffs depends heavily on the coefficient-based feature importance and only concerns the control of false discovery rate (FDR). To further improve its adaptivity and flexibility, in this paper, we propose an error-based knockoff inference method by integrating the knockoff features, the error-based feature importance statistics, and the stepdown procedure together. The proposed inference procedure does not require specifying a regression model and can handle feature selection with theoretical guarantees on controlling false discovery proportion (FDP), FDR, or k-familywise error rate (k-FWER). Empirical evaluations demonstrate the competitive performance of our approach on both simulated and real data.

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Tieliang Gong, Yuxin Dong, Shujian Yu, Hong Chen, Bo Dong, Chen Li, Qinghua Zheng

The recently developed matrix based Renyi's entropy enables measurement of information in data simply using the eigenspectrum of symmetric positive semi definite (PSD) matrices in reproducing kernel Hilbert space, without estimation of the underlying data distribution. This intriguing property makes the new information measurement widely adopted in multiple statistical inference and learning tasks. However, the computation of such quantity involves the trace operator on a PSD matrix $G$ to power $\alpha$(i.e., $tr(G^\alpha)$), with a normal complexity of nearly $O(n^3)$, which severely hampers its practical usage when the number of samples (i.e., $n$) is large. In this work, we present computationally efficient approximations to this new entropy functional that can reduce its complexity to even significantly less than $O(n^2)$. To this end, we first develop randomized approximations to $\tr(\G^\alpha)$ that transform the trace estimation into matrix-vector multiplications problem. We extend such strategy for arbitrary values of $\alpha$ (integer or non-integer). We then establish the connection between the matrix-based Renyi's entropy and PSD matrix approximation, which enables us to exploit both clustering and block low-rank structure of $\G$ to further reduce the computational cost. We theoretically provide approximation accuracy guarantees and illustrate the properties of different approximations. Large-scale experimental evaluations on both synthetic and real-world data corroborate our theoretical findings, showing promising speedup with negligible loss in accuracy.

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Tieliang Gong, Yuxin Dong, Hong Chen, Bo Dong, Chen Li

Subsampling is an important technique to tackle the computational challenges brought by big data. Many subsampling procedures fall within the framework of importance sampling, which assigns high sampling probabilities to the samples appearing to have big impacts. When the noise level is high, those sampling procedures tend to pick many outliers and thus often do not perform satisfactorily in practice. To tackle this issue, we design a new Markov subsampling strategy based on Huber criterion (HMS) to construct an informative subset from the noisy full data; the constructed subset then serves as a refined working data for efficient processing. HMS is built upon a Metropolis-Hasting procedure, where the inclusion probability of each sampling unit is determined using the Huber criterion to prevent over scoring the outliers. Under mild conditions, we show that the estimator based on the subsamples selected by HMS is statistically consistent with a sub-Gaussian deviation bound. The promising performance of HMS is demonstrated by extensive studies on large scale simulations and real data examples.

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Jiangbo Shi, Chang Jia, Zeyu Gao, Tieliang Gong, Chunbao Wang, Chen Li

Nuclei segmentation is a fundamental task in digital pathology analysis and can be automated by deep learning-based methods. However, the development of such an automated method requires a large amount of data with precisely annotated masks which is hard to obtain. Training with weakly labeled data is a popular solution for reducing the workload of annotation. In this paper, we propose a novel meta-learning-based nuclei segmentation method which follows the label correction paradigm to leverage data with noisy masks. Specifically, we design a fully conventional meta-model that can correct noisy masks using a small amount of clean meta-data. Then the corrected masks can be used to supervise the training of the segmentation model. Meanwhile, a bi-level optimization method is adopted to alternately update the parameters of the main segmentation model and the meta-model in an end-to-end way. Extensive experimental results on two nuclear segmentation datasets show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art result. It even achieves comparable performance with the model training on supervised data in some noisy settings.

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Jialun Wu, Anyu Mao, Xinrui Bao, Haichuan Zhang, Zeyu Gao, Chunbao Wang, Tieliang Gong, Chen Li

Digital pathology plays a crucial role in the development of artificial intelligence in the medical field. The digital pathology platform can make the pathological resources digital and networked, and realize the permanent storage of visual data and the synchronous browsing processing without the limitation of time and space. It has been widely used in various fields of pathology. However, there is still a lack of an open and universal digital pathology platform to assist doctors in the management and analysis of digital pathological sections, as well as the management and structured description of relevant patient information. Most platforms cannot integrate image viewing, annotation and analysis, and text information management. To solve the above problems, we propose a comprehensive and extensible platform PIMIP. Our PIMIP has developed the image annotation functions based on the visualization of digital pathological sections. Our annotation functions support multi-user collaborative annotation and multi-device annotation, and realize the automation of some annotation tasks. In the annotation task, we invited a professional pathologist for guidance. We introduce a machine learning module for image analysis. The data we collected included public data from local hospitals and clinical examples. Our platform is more clinical and suitable for clinical use. In addition to image data, we also structured the management and display of text information. So our platform is comprehensive. The platform framework is built in a modular way to support users to add machine learning modules independently, which makes our platform extensible.

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Jialun Wu, Yang Liu, Zeyu Gao, Tieliang Gong, Chunbao Wang, Chen Li

Constructing large-scaled medical knowledge graphs can significantly boost healthcare applications for medical surveillance, bring much attention from recent research. An essential step in constructing large-scale MKG is extracting information from medical reports. Recently, information extraction techniques have been proposed and show promising performance in biomedical information extraction. However, these methods only consider limited types of entity and relation due to the noisy biomedical text data with complex entity correlations. Thus, they fail to provide enough information for constructing MKGs and restrict the downstream applications. To address this issue, we propose Biomedical Information Extraction, a hybrid neural network to extract relations from biomedical text and unstructured medical reports. Our model utilizes a multi-head attention enhanced graph convolutional network to capture the complex relations and context information while resisting the noise from the data. We evaluate our model on two major biomedical relationship extraction tasks, chemical-disease relation and chemical-protein interaction, and a cross-hospital pan-cancer pathology report corpus. The results show that our method achieves superior performance than baselines. Furthermore, we evaluate the applicability of our method under a transfer learning setting and show that BioIE achieves promising performance in processing medical text from different formats and writing styles.

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