This paper studies the problem of weakly open-vocabulary semantic segmentation (WOVSS), which learns to segment objects of arbitrary classes using mere image-text pairs. Existing works turn to enhance the vanilla vision transformer by introducing explicit grouping recognition, i.e., employing several group tokens/centroids to cluster the image tokens and perform the group-text alignment. Nevertheless, these methods suffer from a granularity inconsistency regarding the usage of group tokens, which are aligned in the all-to-one v.s. one-to-one manners during the training and inference phases, respectively. We argue that this discrepancy arises from the lack of elaborate supervision for each group token. To bridge this granularity gap, this paper explores explicit supervision for the group tokens from the prototypical knowledge. To this end, this paper proposes the non-learnable prototypical regularization (NPR) where non-learnable prototypes are estimated from source features to serve as supervision and enable contrastive matching of the group tokens. This regularization encourages the group tokens to segment objects with less redundancy and capture more comprehensive semantic regions, leading to increased compactness and richness. Based on NPR, we propose the prototypical guidance segmentation network (PGSeg) that incorporates multi-modal regularization by leveraging prototypical sources from both images and texts at different levels, progressively enhancing the segmentation capability with diverse prototypical patterns. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on several benchmark datasets. The source code is available at https://github.com/Ferenas/PGSeg.
This paper presents CORE, a conceptually simple, effective and communication-efficient model for multi-agent cooperative perception. It addresses the task from a novel perspective of cooperative reconstruction, based on two key insights: 1) cooperating agents together provide a more holistic observation of the environment, and 2) the holistic observation can serve as valuable supervision to explicitly guide the model learning how to reconstruct the ideal observation based on collaboration. CORE instantiates the idea with three major components: a compressor for each agent to create more compact feature representation for efficient broadcasting, a lightweight attentive collaboration component for cross-agent message aggregation, and a reconstruction module to reconstruct the observation based on aggregated feature representations. This learning-to-reconstruct idea is task-agnostic, and offers clear and reasonable supervision to inspire more effective collaboration, eventually promoting perception tasks. We validate CORE on OPV2V, a large-scale multi-agent percetion dataset, in two tasks, i.e., 3D object detection and semantic segmentation. Results demonstrate that the model achieves state-of-the-art performance on both tasks, and is more communication-efficient.
We present CLUSTSEG, a general, transformer-based framework that tackles different image segmentation tasks (i.e., superpixel, semantic, instance, and panoptic) through a unified neural clustering scheme. Regarding queries as cluster centers, CLUSTSEG is innovative in two aspects:1) cluster centers are initialized in heterogeneous ways so as to pointedly address task-specific demands (e.g., instance- or category-level distinctiveness), yet without modifying the architecture; and 2) pixel-cluster assignment, formalized in a cross-attention fashion, is alternated with cluster center update, yet without learning additional parameters. These innovations closely link CLUSTSEG to EM clustering and make it a transparent and powerful framework that yields superior results across the above segmentation tasks.
This paper proposes an anchor-based deformation model, namely AnchorDEF, to predict 3D garment animation from a body motion sequence. It deforms a garment mesh template by a mixture of rigid transformations with extra nonlinear displacements. A set of anchors around the mesh surface is introduced to guide the learning of rigid transformation matrices. Once the anchor transformations are found, per-vertex nonlinear displacements of the garment template can be regressed in a canonical space, which reduces the complexity of deformation space learning. By explicitly constraining the transformed anchors to satisfy the consistencies of position, normal and direction, the physical meaning of learned anchor transformations in space is guaranteed for better generalization. Furthermore, an adaptive anchor updating is proposed to optimize the anchor position by being aware of local mesh topology for learning representative anchor transformations. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on different types of garments demonstrate that AnchorDEF achieves the state-of-the-art performance on 3D garment deformation prediction in motion, especially for loose-fitting garments.
The objective of this paper is self-supervised learning of video object segmentation. We develop a unified framework which simultaneously models cross-frame dense correspondence for locally discriminative feature learning and embeds object-level context for target-mask decoding. As a result, it is able to directly learn to perform mask-guided sequential segmentation from unlabeled videos, in contrast to previous efforts usually relying on an oblique solution - cheaply "copying" labels according to pixel-wise correlations. Concretely, our algorithm alternates between i) clustering video pixels for creating pseudo segmentation labels ex nihilo; and ii) utilizing the pseudo labels to learn mask encoding and decoding for VOS. Unsupervised correspondence learning is further incorporated into this self-taught, mask embedding scheme, so as to ensure the generic nature of the learnt representation and avoid cluster degeneracy. Our algorithm sets state-of-the-arts on two standard benchmarks (i.e., DAVIS17 and YouTube-VOS), narrowing the gap between self- and fully-supervised VOS, in terms of both performance and network architecture design.
Federated learning is a distributed paradigm that allows multiple parties to collaboratively train deep models without exchanging the raw data. However, the data distribution among clients is naturally non-i.i.d., which leads to severe degradation of the learnt model. The primary goal of this paper is to develop a robust federated learning algorithm to address feature shift in clients' samples, which can be caused by various factors, e.g., acquisition differences in medical imaging. To reach this goal, we propose FedFA to tackle federated learning from a distinct perspective of federated feature augmentation. FedFA is based on a major insight that each client's data distribution can be characterized by statistics (i.e., mean and standard deviation) of latent features; and it is likely to manipulate these local statistics globally, i.e., based on information in the entire federation, to let clients have a better sense of the underlying distribution and therefore alleviate local data bias. Based on this insight, we propose to augment each local feature statistic probabilistically based on a normal distribution, whose mean is the original statistic and variance quantifies the augmentation scope. Key to our approach is the determination of a meaningful Gaussian variance, which is accomplished by taking into account not only biased data of each individual client, but also underlying feature statistics characterized by all participating clients. We offer both theoretical and empirical justifications to verify the effectiveness of FedFA. Our code is available at https://github.com/tfzhou/FedFA.
Partitioning an image into superpixels based on the similarity of pixels with respect to features such as colour or spatial location can significantly reduce data complexity and improve subsequent image processing tasks. Initial algorithms for unsupervised superpixel generation solely relied on local cues without prioritizing significant edges over arbitrary ones. On the other hand, more recent methods based on unsupervised deep learning either fail to properly address the trade-off between superpixel edge adherence and compactness or lack control over the generated number of superpixels. By using random images with strong spatial correlation as input, \ie, blurred noise images, in a non-convolutional image decoder we can reduce the expected number of contrasts and enforce smooth, connected edges in the reconstructed image. We generate edge-sparse pixel embeddings by encoding additional spatial information into the piece-wise smooth activation maps from the decoder's last hidden layer and use a standard clustering algorithm to extract high quality superpixels. Our proposed method reaches state-of-the-art performance on the BSDS500, PASCAL-Context and a microscopy dataset.
We devise deep nearest centroids (DNC), a conceptually elegant yet surprisingly effective network for large-scale visual recognition, by revisiting Nearest Centroids, one of the most classic and simple classifiers. Current deep models learn the classifier in a fully parametric manner, ignoring the latent data structure and lacking simplicity and explainability. DNC instead conducts nonparametric, case-based reasoning; it utilizes sub-centroids of training samples to describe class distributions and clearly explains the classification as the proximity of test data and the class sub-centroids in the feature space. Due to the distance-based nature, the network output dimensionality is flexible, and all the learnable parameters are only for data embedding. That means all the knowledge learnt for ImageNet classification can be completely transferred for pixel recognition learning, under the "pre-training and fine-tuning" paradigm. Apart from its nested simplicity and intuitive decision-making mechanism, DNC can even possess ad-hoc explainability when the sub-centroids are selected as actual training images that humans can view and inspect. Compared with parametric counterparts, DNC performs better on image classification (CIFAR-10, ImageNet) and greatly boots pixel recognition (ADE20K, Cityscapes), with improved transparency and fewer learnable parameters, using various network architectures (ResNet, Swin) and segmentation models (FCN, DeepLabV3, Swin). We feel this work brings fundamental insights into related fields.
Prevalent semantic segmentation solutions, despite their different network designs (FCN based or attention based) and mask decoding strategies (parametric softmax based or pixel-query based), can be placed in one category, by considering the softmax weights or query vectors as learnable class prototypes. In light of this prototype view, this study uncovers several limitations of such parametric segmentation regime, and proposes a nonparametric alternative based on non-learnable prototypes. Instead of prior methods learning a single weight/query vector for each class in a fully parametric manner, our model represents each class as a set of non-learnable prototypes, relying solely on the mean features of several training pixels within that class. The dense prediction is thus achieved by nonparametric nearest prototype retrieving. This allows our model to directly shape the pixel embedding space, by optimizing the arrangement between embedded pixels and anchored prototypes. It is able to handle arbitrary number of classes with a constant amount of learnable parameters. We empirically show that, with FCN based and attention based segmentation models (i.e., HRNet, Swin, SegFormer) and backbones (i.e., ResNet, HRNet, Swin, MiT), our nonparametric framework yields compelling results over several datasets (i.e., ADE20K, Cityscapes, COCO-Stuff), and performs well in the large-vocabulary situation. We expect this work will provoke a rethink of the current de facto semantic segmentation model design.